TO BE / BE
'We are about to be late! Hurry up!'
Le verbe auxiliaire to be est certainement le verbe le plus utilisé en anglais.
Il est le plus souvent la traduction du verbe 'être', mais pas toujours.
C'est le seul verbe, qui, même quand il est verbe principal, sera traité comme un auxiliaire.
To be + adjectif sert
- à renseigner sur un état instantané ou durable.
I am happy Je suis content.
You are nasty. Vous êtes désagréable.
Are you ready? Êtes-vous prêt?
- à renseigner sur une description
I am French. Je suis français.
He is fat. Il est gros.
To be + nom
- sert à renseigner sur une situation permanente
I am a teacher. Je suis professeur.
They are friends. Ils sont amis.
To be + préposition
- sert à renseigner sur un endroit, un lieu
He is in his bedroom. Il est dans sa chambre.
I am in France. Je suis en France.
You are on the chair. Tu es sur la chaise.
- sert à renseigner sur un endroit d'origine
I am from France. Je suis de France.
To be +verbe ('be'= auxiliaire.)
Il est suivi d'un verbe en -ING au présent progressif.
I am sleeping / you are sleeping / he-she-it is sleeping
we are sleeping / you are sleeping / they are sleeping
Il est suivi d'un verbe au participe passé à la voix passive.
Cars are parked over there.
Suivi d'un infinitif (mais peu usité) dans des constructions formelles
qui expriment l'idée d'une action obligatoire.
You are to tell the truth. Vous devez dire la vérité.
Faites attention : To be ne se traduit pas forcément par 'être'.
I'm twelve. J'ai douze ans.
I'm hungry / thirsty. J'ai faim / soif.
I'm fine. Je vais bien.
I'm lucky. J'ai de la chance.
I'm cold / hot / warm. J'ai froid/chaud.
I'm afraid. J'ai peur.
I am / you are / he-she-it is / we are / you are / they are
I was / you were/ he-she-it was / we were /you were / they were
be / let's be / be
I am being /you are being / he-she-it is being
we are being /you are being / they are being
I have been / you have been / he-she-it has been
we have been /you have been / they have been
Present perfect continuous
I have been being / you have been being /he-she-it has been being
we have been being / you have been being / they have been being
I will be / you will be / he-she-it will be
we will be / you will be / they will be
I will have been /you will have been / he-she-it will have been
we will have been / you will have been / they will have been
I will be being /you will be being /he-she-it will be being
we will be being /you will be being /they will be being
Future perfect continuous
I will have been being / you will have been being /he-she-it will have been being
we will have been being /you will have been being /they will have been being
I was being / you were being / he-she-it was being
we were being / you were being / they were being
I had been /you had been /he-she-it had been
we had been / you had been /they had been
Past perfect continuous
I had been being /you had been being /he-she-it had been being
we had been being /you had been being /they had been being