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That ou Which
Message de steeve34 posté le 26-09-2006 à 09:35:49 (S | E | F | I)

Bonjour à tous,

Comment traduire le pronom relatif sujet QUI, lorsque l'antécédent ne désigne pas une personne ?

Lorsque l'antécédent ne désigne pas une personne, le pronom relatif sujet QUI se traduit soit par THAT, soit par WHICH.

Quand doit-on employer THAT ?

On emploie THAT lorsque la proposition relative est indispensable au sens de la phrase. C'est la raison pour laquelle on l'appelle proposition relative déterminative.

Exemple:

Le vent qui soufflait hier venait de l'ouest.
The wind THAT was blowing yesterday was in the west.

Remarques:

1-Si on supprime la relative " that was blowing yesterday", on ne sait plus de quel vent on parle; le sens de la phrase n'est pas clair.

2-Il est impossible d' omettre le pronom relatif THAT car il est sujet.

3-Il est préférable d'employer THAT même si WHICH n'est pas impossible.


Quand doit-on employer WHICH ?

On emploie WHICH lorsque la proposition relative, mise entre virgules, n'est pas indispensable à la compréhension de la phrase.

Exemple:

Le vent, qui n'a pas soufflé hier, vient de l'ouest.
The wind, WHICH did not blow yesterday, is in the west.

Remarques:

1-Si on supprime la relative "which did not blow yesterday", la phrase reste compréhensible.

2-WHICH ne peut être omis pour deux raisons: il introduit une relative entre virgules, et il est sujet.

Niveau:
Correction: mercredi 4 octobre 2006.

Traduire les phrases suivantes en employant that ou which .

1-La campagne publicitaire, qui coûte très cher, atteindra-t-elle son but ?
2-La grand-rue, qui grouille de monde, est très bruyante.
3-A cause de votre solde débiteur, il faudra payer des agios.
4-Le traité de Maastricht, signé en 1992, a instauré l'Union Européenne.
5-Cette nature morte, qui a été peinte par Cézanne, sera exposée dans un autre musée.
6-Le bétail, qui est en train de paître, passera la nuit dehors.
7-Ces puces électroniques, qui sont produites en Chine, ne sont pas chères.
8- L'explosion qui s'est produite à la centrale nucléaire de Tchernobyl a causé beaucoup de morts.

Vocabulaire:
Campagne publicitaire--->advertising campaign.
Solde débiteur---->account in the red.
Agios----> bank charges.
Nature morte---->still life.
puces electroniques---> silicon chips.
Centrale nucléaire---->nuclear power station.
-------------------
Modifié par bridg le 26-09-2006 09:56
Retrait des majuscules dans le titre.


Réponse: That ou Which de nanette33, postée le 26-09-2006 à 19:35:33 (S | E)
Hello Steeve,

1 - Will the advertising campaign, which is very expensive, hit its target?
2 - The main street, which swarms with people, is very noisy.
3 - Because of your account, that is in the red, it will be necessary to pay bank charges.
4 - The treaty of Maastricht, that was signed in 1992, established the European Union.
5 - This still life, which was painted by Cezanne, will be exposed in another museum.
6 - The cattle, which is grazing, will spend the night outside.
7 - These silicon chips, that are produced in China aren't expensive.
8 - The explosion that occured in the Nuclear power station of Tchernobyl caused many deaths.




Réponse: That ou Which de mp27, postée le 26-09-2006 à 21:10:25 (S | E)
Hello steeve34,
1-extra info sur cette campagne-> elle coûte très cher-->Will the advertising campaign, which is rather expensive, reach its goal?
2-extra info sur la grand-rue-> elle grouille de monde-->The high street, which is swarming with people, is very noisy.
4-extra info sur la date->The Maastricht treaty, which was signed in 1992, established the European Union.
5-on peut identifier la peinture [celle peinte par Cézanne]-->This still life that was painted by Cézanne will be exhibited in another museum.
6-on identifie le bétail [le bétail en train de paître]-->The cattle that is grazing at the moment will spend winter outdoors... mais si "grazing at the moment", était considéré comme un détail supplémentaire ("by the way")alors, je choisirais "which".
8-on identifie l'explosion [celle qui s'est produite à Chernobyl]-->The explosion that occurred at Chernobyl nuclear power station killed a lot of people.
-------------------------------------------------------
7 a)-extra info sur ces puces--> elles sont produites en Chine-->These silicon chips, which are made in China, are not expensive.
7 b)-on identifie les puces, celles qui ne sont pas chères-->The silicon chips that are not expensive are made in China.
--------------------------------------------------------
3 a)-“which is in the red” donne extra info sur le compte bancaire-->You'll have to pay bank charges on your bank acount, which, (I'm afraid) is in the red.
3 b)-“that is in the red” permettrait d'identifier le compte (si plusieurs comptes bancaires)-->You will have to pay bank charges on your bank account that is in the red.
3 c)-Pourrait-on dire aussi --> Your account being in the red, you'll have to pay bank charges.
Thanks!


Réponse: That ou Which de maya13, postée le 27-09-2006 à 15:06:08 (S | E)
hello steeve,

1 - Will the advertising campaign,which is very expensive, be effective ?
2 - The high street, which is swarming with people, is very noisy
3 - Because of your account that is in the red, you will have to pay bank charges
4 - The treaty of Maastricht, which was signed in 1992, has established the
European Union
5 - This still life, that was painted by Cezanne, will be exhibited in another museum
6 - The cattle, which is grazing, will spend the night out
7 - These silicon chips, which are made in China, are not expensive
8 - The explosion that occured in Tchernobyl nuclear power station caused a lot
of casualties

thank you


Réponse: That ou Which de lapis-lazuli, postée le 28-09-2006 à 07:03:40 (S | E)
Hi Steeve 34,

1 - Will the advertising campaign, which is very expensive, hit its target?
2 - The main street, which swarms with people, is very noisy.
3 - Because of your account, that is in the red, it will be necessary to pay bank charges.
4 - The treaty of Maastricht, that was signed in 1992, established the European Union.
5 - This still life, which was painted by Cezanne, will be exposed in another museum.
6 - The cattle, which is grazing, will spend the night outside.
7 - These silicon chips, that are produced in China aren't expensive.
8 - The explosion that occured in the Nuclear power station of Tchernobyl caused many deaths.



Réponse: That ou Which de sandrineg, postée le 28-09-2006 à 08:04:10 (S | E)
1- Will the adversiting campaign which is too expensive reach its goal ?
2- The main street which is crowded is very noisy.
3- Because of your account that is in the red, you must pay bank charges.
4- The treaty of Masstricht which was signed in 1992, has established the European Union.
5- This still life which was painted by Cezanne will be exhibited in another Museum.
6- The cattle which is grazing will spend the night out.
7- Silicon chips which are made in China aren't expensive.
8- The deflagration that happened in Tchernobyl nuclear power station caused many deaths.
Bye
Sandrine


Réponse: That ou Which de annie, postée le 28-09-2006 à 10:51:11 (S | E)
Hello,
1) Will the adversiting campaign, which is very expensive, hit his mark ?
2) The high street,which is teeming with crowds of people, is very noisy
3) Because of your account that is in the red ,you should pay some bank charges.
4) The treaty of Maastricht, which was signed in 1992, has established the European Union.
5) This still life that was being painted by Cezanne,will be shown in another museum.
6) The cattle that are grazing, will stay out at night.
7) These silicon chips that are produced in China, are not very expensive.
8) The explosion that happened to the nuclear power station of Tchernobyl,caused a lot of deads.

Thanks



Réponse: That ou Which de adamolma4, postée le 28-09-2006 à 18:35:26 (S | E)
Hello Steve

1) -Will the advirtising campaign, which costs a fortune, reach its purpose.
2)- The high-street, which is swarming with a lot of people, is very noisy.
3)- because of your account that is in the red, you'll have to pay bank charges.
4)- The traity of Maastricht, which was signed in 1992, has established the European Union.
5)- This still life that was painted by Cezanne, will be exhibited in an other museum.
6)- The cattle, which is grazing, will spend the night outside.
7)- These silicon chips that are product in china, aren't expensive.
8)- The explosion that occured in the nuclear power station of Tchernobyl, caused a lot of deaths.

Thank you Steve
See you soon


Réponse: That ou Which de rmx94, postée le 29-09-2006 à 19:22:23 (S | E)


1)Will the adversiting campaign,which cost very expensive,hits its aim?
2)The big street,which swarms people,is very noisy.
3)That your account in the red,you will have to pay bank charges.
4)The Maastricht treaty,that's signed in 1992,has established the european union.
5)This still life,which has painted,will be exposed in an another museum.
6)The cattle,which is feeding,will spend outside.
7)These slicon chips,which produced in china,are not expensive.
8)The explosion that has taken place in the nuclear power station caused much deaths

thank you steve


Réponse: That ou Which de coferam, postée le 30-09-2006 à 15:04:34 (S | E)

Bonjour Steeve34,

1 / Will The adversing campaign, which is very expensive, reach her its aim ?
2 / The main street, which swarms about people, is very loud.
3 / Because of your account in the red, which exceeded the authorized threshold,
it will be necessary to pay bank charges .
4 / The Maastricht treaty, that was signed in 1992, established the European Union.
5 / This still-life painting, which was painted by Cezanne, will be exposed in another museum.
6 / The cattle, that is grazing, will spend the night outside.
7 / These electronic chips, that are made in China, are not expensive.
8 / The explosion, that happened to the nuclear power station of Tchernobyl, caused many deaths.

Merci une fois de plus pour ces textes qui ‘collent’ si bien à la grammaire !



Réponse: That ou Which de lakata, postée le 30-09-2006 à 17:05:51 (S | E)
Hello, steeve!

1) Will the advertising campaign, which costs a lot, reach its aim ?/ be effective ?
2) The main street, which is swarming with people, is very noisy.
3) Because of your account that is in the red you'll have to pay bank charges.
4) The treaty of Maastricht, which was signed in 1992, established the European Union.
5) This still life, which was painted by Cézanne, will be exhibited in another museum.
6) The cattle, which is grazing, will spend the night outside
7) These silicon chips that are made in China are cheap.
8) The explosion that occured at the Chernobyl nuclear power station claimed many dead people.
P.S :
Il me semble que si on peut mettre la proposition relative entre virgules, donc en apposition, on utilise which.
En revanche, quand il est hors de question de mettre la première virgule, on utilise that.
Est-ce exact ?

Merci steeve ! See you soon.


Réponse: That ou Which de vivianne, postée le 30-09-2006 à 20:39:30 (S | E)
Hello Steeve,

1) Will the advertising campaign, which is very expensive, come to its aim ?

2) The main street, which is crowed, is very loud.

3) Because of your account that is in the red, you will have to pay bank charges.

4) The treaty of Maastricht, which has been signed in 1992, hase founded the European Union.

5) This still life, that has been painted by Cézanne, will be exposed in an other museum.

6) The livestock, which is grazing , will spend the night outside.

7) These silicon chips, which are produced in China, are cheap.

8) The blast that happened at the nuclear power station of Tchernobyl has caused a lot of deaths.

Thank you.
See you



Réponse: That ou Which de steeve34, postée le 04-10-2006 à 08:33:04 (S | E)
Bonjour à tous.

Dans l'introduction de cet exercice j'ai donné des explications suffisamment claires, et je ne pense pas qu'il soit nécessaire d' ajouter des commentaires.
Cependant je voudrais répondre particulièrement à mp27 et lakata, que les relatives employées sont :

soit déterminatives, elles servent à définir le nom auquel elles se rapportent.
On emploie - that - (On peut employer which dans certains cas, mais that est préférable et plus courant)

soit appositives ou explicatives, elles servent à apporter une indication supplémentaire qui n'est pas indispensable au sens de la phrase.
Les virgules sont nécessaires.
On emploie - which- ( L'emploi de that est ici impossible ).

Remarque lexicale :

Comme people cattle est un nom pluriel.
Il est donc employé avec un verbe au pluriel.
The cattle are grazing.
Cattle forme son singulier avec l'expression " head of " qui reste invariable après un nombre.
Twenty head of cattle--> vingt bêtes à cornes.

Voici ma proposition :

1- Will the advertising campaign, which costs a lot of money, achieve its aim ?
2- The main street, which is swarming with people, is very noisy.
3- Owing to your account that is in the red, you will have to pay bank charges.
4- The Maastricht Treaty, which was signed in 1992, established the European Union.
5- This still life, which was painted by Cezanne, will be exhibited in another museum.
6- The cattle, which are grazing, will spend the night outdoors.
7- These silicon chips, which are made in China, are cheap.
8- The explosion that took place at the Chernobyl nuclear power station caused many deaths.

Je vous remercie de votre participation.
Je répondrai à toute question concernant ce sujet.




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