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Thèmes généraux, jeux, chansons, traductions...
Tout ce qui n'a pas un rapport direct avec les difficultés liées à la langue anglaise: par exemple, les thèmes généraux sur l'apprentissage de la langue, les jeux, les demandes de traductions de chansons etc.


Bank (correction)
Message de emilie59 posté le 10-12-2006 à 18:25:08 (S | E | F | I)

J'ai un texte à corriger, pourriez-vous m'aider s'il vous plaît?

The over-indebtedness is defined as being impossibility for a private individual of facing the whole of its unprofessional debts. All the exigible debts or to fall are taken into account: banking, rental, of joint ownership, tax, of electricity, gasoline, phone…
In the contemporary society, the possibility of obtaining a credit is a factor which contributes in an important way to the economic growth and the financial stability of the households. However if the credit is generally favorable to prosperity, it does not imply less risks. The debt can become a massive problem for the households, particularly in phase of the economic retreat and fast expansion of the market of the credit.
The bankruptcy can have multiple causes: unemployment, personals problems (such as the disease and the divorce) and excessive consumption.

Does it’s advisable to wonder whether England and Wales have a Law on the refitting of the debts? Do there exist services of financial council and information as regards credit?

With regard to the case of England and Wales, the collective procedures controls by the Law on the bankruptcies of 1986, apply as well to the physical people with the people morals.

In the first place, we will discover the various causes of bankruptcy. Then we will see what generate the bankruptcy (consequences). Lastly, we will see that in England and in Wales, the involved private individuals have the possibility of declaring themselves in bankruptcy. How does without the opening and unfolding this procedure?
Then, we will see that they can avoid the bankruptcy while concluding with their creditors from the agreements, qualified “individual voluntary arrangements”. Do there exist services of assistance finances management of the debt? Which are their roles?

I. The various causes of bankruptcy:

The bankruptcy became a real problem of society. We attend since about twenty years an evolution of the law for the excessive debt. We are indeed crossed by an "active" excessive debt, characterized by an excessive appeal to the credit, to the "passive" excessive debt, which is translated by a contraction of the resources produced by an outside event (unemployment, divorce, death) not allowing any more the persons to honor their financial commitments.

British households and the characteristic of their debts:
Since 2002, one notes an appreciable increase in incur debt of the British households. The credit remained stimulated by the continuation of the fall of the interests until 2005. Here are the various characteristics of the debt of the British households:
- the mortgage does not give any more right to a tax cut since 1999. - incur mortgage increased less in 2004. - most of the mortgage loans is atfluctuating rate. - increase in the interest rates by the Bank of England in 2004, prudence is recommended as regards credit. - the consumer credits unguaranteed slow down. - the mortgages with consumption have a fast development (many households drew part of valorization from their real estate to obtain additional appropriations). - there are pawnbrokers, of the lenders in residence and the lenders “payday”: for unguaranteed appropriations.
The debt of the British households continued to increase in 2003 and 2004. Here some figures and principal causes.

The situation of the bankruptcy: figures and causes:

Some organizations help persons in trouble financial and list some figures concerning the bankruptcy, the excessive debt. It’s the case of CAB, the Citizens Advice Bureau.The Citizens Advice service helps people resolve their legal, money and other problems by providing free information and advice from over 3,000 locations, and by influencing policymakers(cf. TEXT CITIZENS ADVICE UPSURGE IN SERIOUS DEBT) Citizens Advice and each Citizens Advice Bureau are registered charities reliant on over 20,000 volunteers and need to raise funds to provide these vital services. The majority of our advisers are trained volunteers, helping people to resolve nearly 5.5 million problems every year. All Citizens Advice Bureaux in England, Wales and Northern Ireland are members of Citizens Advice, the national charity which sets standards for advice and equal opportunities and supports bureaux with an information system, training and other services. According to the CAB, « the credit continue to be the largest problem for consumers, including credit cards, store cards, unsecured personal loans, mail order debts and overdrafts. Somme 824,000 people sought advice for problems in the same period, a figure that has doubled over the past eight years. ». The bankruptcy concerns people victims of the divorce, job loss, identity theft, staggering medical bills or disability. In fact, 90% of all bankruptcy cases are a result of job loss, uninsured medical bills or divorce. (cf. TEXT WHAT IS BANKRUPTCY). The causes of bankruptcy are numerous,we will evoke some one.
One of the causes of the bankruptcy of the households is the housing debt which include repayment mortgages, secured loans and rent arrears. People have problems to repay.We note a sharp rise of people getting mortgage payments and having trouble to pay council tax, gas and electricity bills.
A second cause is the facility to obtain credits and credit card. Many households draw part of valorization from their real estate to obtain additional credits. Moreover, banks and organizations of credit grant easily loans without requiring the documents in proof of incomes and other elements necessary to calculate their debts. Some seemingly manageable credit card debt can become insurmontable when combined with a job loss. The taxation, the legal environment, the trend of the price of the residences, the level of the rates and the economic climate are determining factors of the application for credit of the households.
Then, one notes as third cause, the catalogue and mail order debts. They remain the largest source of problems and on the 824,000 investigations, housing debt remains one of the most important debts. On the 127,000 housing debt problems, nearly 10000 concerned threatened repossession and 2,000 concerned actual repossession or eviction. « Somme 770,000 people had missed at least one mortgage payment in the previous twelve months. » (cf. TEXT NUMBER OF PEOPLE SEEKING HELP WITH DEBT JUMPS 11%). Council tax debtproblems went up by almost to 89,000, and debts from unpaid bills on gas, electricity,telephone and water were up by 19% to 90,000.
The financial standing of the British is increasingly fragile. Whereas their debt passes very close to the 145% of their income available gross, the personal bankruptcies due to over-indebtedness reached historical levels.
The bankruptcy is a serious problem which assigns all the members of a hearth. It is not only about one economic problem engraves but also psychological problem often leading to social exclusion. We will see the consequences.

The bankruptcy became a solution with the problems of debts and touches all the population (workers, unemployed, students…). The borrowers pushed to the edge by their mortgages, insurmountable credit and store card debts or, increasingly student debts (Text Bankruptcy: it can be murder).

The personal bankruptcy is applicable to the physical, commercial people or not, incompetent in the immediate future to honour their debts or which don’t have any prospect “reasonable” to honour them in the future.

The opening of the procedure:

The request is presented by the debtor or the creditor.

If the request is presented by the debtor, it must be accompanied by a declaration of its incomes, of an inventory of its credits, its debts and its other obligations, and a list of its creditors so that the court can establish the incapacity to pay.
On this assumption, the court designates a liquidator who must, insofar as the total of the debts and where the amount of the inheritance of the debtor aren’t very important (respectively 20.000 and 2.000 Pounds), to endeavour to propose other solutions that the bankruptcy, in particular to manage agreements with the creditors.

The decision on the opening of the bankruptcy is made by the court within sight of the indications provided by the liquidator.

When the request is deposited by a creditor, the Law forces to him to prove the existence of an unquestionable, exigible credit or to fall, and unguaranteed of an amount of at least 750 Pounds (approximately 1.143 Euros), but it the search of arrangements between the creditors and the debtor doesn’t impose.

The development of the procedure:

After the formal commencement of bankruptcy proceedings was pronounced, the control of the goods of the debtor is given to a syndic, who carries out the bankrupt’s estate and distributes it to the creditors. Several provisions however aim at leaving to the debtor a minimum of incomes and goods. The Law indeed authorizes to preserve “the tools, books, vehicles and other articles of equipment necessary to the personal use in its employment, its activity or its profession as well as clothing, furnishing, the domestic equipment and the provisions necessary to satisfy the fundamental domestic needs for the debtor and his family”.
On the other hand, the main home and the car are generally sold.

The effects:
With the procedure closure, the debtor is released from his debts, with some exceptions near:
- The creditors provided with safeties can exert continuations against it debtor to recover their credits. - Some debts as the compensatory services cannot be erasing.
Moreover, in the event of fraud, the debtor is not released from his debts.
Insofar as the debtor wasn’t declared in bankruptcy during fifteen years previous, it is automatically released three years after the date of the judgement of setting in bankruptcy. If the request for bankruptcy was presented by the debtor and that the debts were assembled to less than 20.000 Pounds, it is released at the end of two years. When the debtor already was the subject of a procedure of bankruptcy during fifteen last years previous, the release must be pronounced by the Court. It can be acquired only at the end of five years.
Merci pour ce que vous pourrez faire.
Modifié par bridg le 10-12-2006 18:47
Formules de politesse

Réponse: Bank (correction) de bridg, postée le 10-12-2006 à 18:54:10 (S | E)
Nous sommes un site pour apprendre les langues et aider les membres à progresser mais pas des correcteurs professionnels de mémoires.
Inscrite depuis 40 minutes, vous nous postez ce pavé, il a peu de chances de trouver un correcteur courageux, c'est hors du champ de nos engagements auprès des membres.
Bon courage.

Réponse: Bank (correction) de mp27, postée le 10-12-2006 à 19:09:01 (S | E)
Je ne vais corriger QUE l'introduction qui avait été envoyée en premier.
T'aider à corriger le développement serait un travail beaucoup trop long!
Tout d'abord: les 5 premières phrases de l'introduction.

Phrase 1)-->Définition
-- The ( omettre the) over-indebtedness
-- impossibility ---> je mettrais "inability", (nuance)
-- of facing the whole of its unprofessional debts ---> (les détails suivent)
- pas "of facing", mais , bien concrètement & tout simplement "of paying back his debts”
- pourquoi “unprofessional"? Pour moi, cela n'a pas de sens
- après "of paying back his debts", je complèterais la définition par: "from his current income". Ce point est vital dans la définition.

Phrase 2)
-- All the exigible debts ?
-- or to fall ?
-- of (omettre of) joint ownership
-- of (omettre of) electricity,
-- gasoline --> (UK English--> petrol)

Phrase 3)
-- in the (omettre the)contemporary society
-- to the (omettre the) economic growth
-- and the ( NOT THE) financial stability
-- of the (NOT THE) households.

Phrase 4)
-- However if --> d'après le sens, il s'agirait de--> "EVEN IF"
-- the (omettre the) credit is

Phrase 5)
-- The (omettre the) debt can become
-- the (omettre the) households,

-- in phase of the (omettre the) economic retreat (les détails suivent)
- in phase of? je suppose que tu veux dire--> during
- economic retreat--> not retreat mais “economic decline”
-- and fast expansion---> dans ce cas, pas fast, mais rapid

-- of the market of the credit--> = of the + mot composé de 2 noms.
donc---> tu dois mettre “credit” en premier, suivi de “market” (et bien sûr, pas de “of the” entre credit et market)


Il y a 4 constructions de questions à refaire. Je les ai regroupées
-- Does it’s advisable to wonder ... ?
-- Do there exist services ... ?
-- How does without the opening and unfolding this procedure?
-- Do there exist services of assistance ...?

-- The bankruptcy --> omettre the
-- personals problems --> les adjectifs ne s'accordent pas en anglais.
-- the disease and the divorce --> omettre the

-- the “physical people” ( ??? ) with the people morals – je ne comprends pas!
-- Quel est le sujet de “apply”?
-- ... what generate the bankruptcy (consequences). --> Est-ce que tu veux dire: what the bankruptcy generates? Pas très clair.


Then, we will see that they can avoid the bankruptcy while concluding with their creditors from the agreements, qualified “individual voluntary arrangements”.
-- we will see “how” they can.....--> how, au lieu de that
-- avoid the bankruptcy --> omettre the
-- qualified “individual voluntary arrangements”--> cette dernière partie de la phrase n'est pas intégrée et il faudrait reconstruire.
-- services of assistance finances management of the debt-- ?!?
Dans cette succession de mots, pour comprendre un peu, je pense qu'il s'agit de “services” providing ---> “debt management assistance”,
donc, de -->debt management assistance services.

--while concluding with their creditors from the agreements, qualified “individual voluntary arrangements”---> pas clair du tout.
-- Which are their roles?--> which? or what?

Fin de ce que je peux faire sur l'introduction de ton très long texte. Je ne vais pas plus loin...

Réponse: Bank (correction) de willy, postée le 11-12-2006 à 15:52:19 (S | E)
Hello !

Pour être plus à l'aise dans un exercice tel que le tien, il faut se servir des moteurs de recherche pour pouvoir lire des articles qui traitent du sujet. Tu y trouves du vocabulaire spécialisé et des tournures de phrases idiomatiques que tu peux utiliser dans la rédaction de ton texte.
C'est ce que font les interprètes : il est impossible de tout connaître dans tous les domaines, même en langue maternelle.



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