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http://www. / VOA Special English






n. (noun) - a name word

v. (verb) - an action word

ad. (adjective/adverb) - a describing word

prep. (preposition) - a word used to show a relation

pro. (pronoun) - a word used in place of a noun

conj. (conjunction) - a joining word



a (an) - ad. one; any; each

able - v. having the power to do something

about - ad. almost ("about half"); of or having a relation to ("We talk about the weather.")

above - ad. at a higher place

accept - v. to agree to receive

accident - n. something that happens by chance or mistake; an unplanned event

accuse - v. to say a person is responsible for an act or crime; to make a statement against someone

across - ad. from side to side; to the other side

act - v. to do something

activist - n. one who seeks change through action

actor - n. someone acting in a play or show

add - v. to put (something) with another to make it larger; to say more

administration - n. the executive part of a government, usually headed by a president or prime minister

admit - v. to accept ("admitted to the United Nations"); to express one's guilt or responsibility ("He admitted that what he did was wrong.")

adult - n. a grown person

advise - v. to help with information, knowledge or ideas in making a decision

affect - v. to produce an effect on; to influence ("A lack of sleep affected the singer's performance.")

afraid - ad. feeling fear

after - ad. later; behind

again - ad. another time; as before

against - ad. opposed to; not agreeing with something

age - n. how old a person or thing is

agency - n. an organization that is part of a larger group ("an agency of the United Nations")

aggression - n. an attack against a person or country; the violation of a country's borders

ago - ad. of time past; before now

agree - v. to have the same belief as someone; to be willing to do something

agriculture - n. farming

aid - v. to help; to support; n. help, assistance

aim - v. to point a gun at; n. a goal or purpose

air - n. the mixture of gases around the earth, mostly nitrogen and oxygen, that we breathe

air force - n. a military organization using airplanes

airplane - n. a vehicle with wings that flies

airport - n. a place where airplanes take off and land

album - n. a collection of recorded music

alcohol - n. a strong, colorless liquid, usually made from grain, used as a drug or in industrial products

alive - ad. having life; not dead

all - ad. everything; everyone; the complete amount

ally - n. a nation or person joined with another for a special purpose

almost - ad. a little less than completely

alone - ad. separated from others

along - ad. near or on ("along the road")

already - ad. before now; even now

also - ad. added to; too

although - conj. even if it is true that

always - ad. at all times; every time

ambassador - n. a nation's highest diplomatic representative (to another government)

amend - v. to add to or to change (a proposal or law)

ammunition - n. the bullets or shells fired from guns

among - ad. in or part of (a group)

amount - n. the number, size or weight of anything

anarchy - n. a lack of order; lawlessness

ancestor - n. a family member from the past

ancient - ad. very old; long ago

and - conj. also; in addition to; with

anger - n. a strong emotion against someone or something

animal - n. a living creature that moves, such as a dog or cat

anniversary - n. a yearly celebration or observance of an event that happened in the past

announce - v. to make known publicly; to declare officially

another - ad. one more; a different one

answer - n. a statement produced by a question; v. to make a statement after being asked a question

any - ad. one or more of no special kind

apologize - v. to express regret for a mistake or accident for which one accepts responsibility

appeal - v. to take to a higher court, person or group for a decision; to call on somebody for help

appear - v. to show oneself; to come into sight; to seem

appoint - v. to name; to choose ("appoint a judge")

approve - v. to agree with; to agree to support

archeology - n. the scientific study of past human life and activities

area - n. any place or part of it

argue - v. to offer reasons for or against something; to dispute; to disagree

arms - n. military equipment; weapons

army - n. military ground forces

around - ad. on every side (of)

arrest - v. to seize a person for legal action; to take as a prisoner

arrive - v. to come to a place, especially at the end of a trip

art - n. expressions or creations by humans, such as paintings, music, writing or statues

artillery - n. big guns

as - conj. equally ("as fast as"); when; while

ash - n. the part left after something burns

ask - v. to question; to say something is wanted ("We ask the teacher questions every day.")

assist - v. to help

astronaut - n. a person who travels in space

astronomy - n. the scientific study of stars and the universe

asylum - n. political protection given by a government to a person from another country

at - prep. in or near ("at the edge"); where ("look at"); when ("at noon")

atmosphere - n. the gases surrounding any star or planet

attach - v. to tie together; to connect

attack - n. a violent attempt to damage, injure or kill; v. to start a fight

attempt - v. to work toward something; to try; to make an effort

attend - v. to be present at

automobile - n. a vehicle with wheels used to carry people; a car

autumn - n. the time of the year between summer and winter

average - n. something (a number) representing the middle; ad. common; normal

avoid - v. to stay away from

awake - ad. not sleeping

award - n. an honor or prize for an act or service

away - ad. not near



baby - n. a newly born creature

back - n. the part behind the front; ad. the other way from forward

bad - ad. wrong; acting against the law; not good

balance - v. to make two sides or forces equal

ball - n. something round

balloon - n. a device of strong, light material that rises when filled with gas lighter than air

ballot - n. a piece of paper used for voting

ban - v. to not permit; to stop; n. an official restriction

bank - n. an organization that keeps and lends money

bar - v. to prevent or block

barrier - n. anything that blocks or makes an action difficult

base - n. a military center; v. to establish as a fact ("Her research was based on experiments.")

battle - n. a fight between opposing armed forces

be - v. to live; to happen; to exist

beat - v. to hit again and again

beauty - ad. that which pleases the eye, ear or spirit

because - prep. for the reason that ("He left because he was sick.")

become - v. to come to be

bed - n. a sleeping place

before - prep. earlier

begin - v. to do the first part of an action; to start

behind - ad. at the back of; in back of

believe - v. to think; to feel sure of; to accept as true; to trust

bell - n. an instrument that makes a musical sound ("a church bell")

belong - v. to be owned by; to be a member of

below - ad. lower than

best - ad. the most good

betray - v. to turn against; to be false to

better - ad. more good than

between - ad. in the space or time that separates; from one to the other ("talks between two nations")

big - ad. of great size; not small

bill - n. a legislative proposal

biology - n. the scientific study of life or living things in all their forms

bird - n. a creature that flies

bite - v. to cut with the teeth

black - ad. dark; having the color like that of the night sky

blame - v. to accuse; to hold responsible

blanket - n. a cloth cover used to keep warm

bleed - v. to lose blood

blind - ad. not able to see

block - v. to stop something from being done; to prevent movement

blood - n. red fluid in the body

blow - v. to move with force, as in air ("The wind blows.")

blue - ad. having the color like that of a clear sky

boat - n. something built to travel on water that carries people or goods

body - n. all of a person or animal; the remains of a person or animal

boil - v. to heat a liquid until it becomes very hot

bomb - n. a device that explodes with great force; v. to attack or destroy with bombs

bone - n. the hard material in the body

book - n. a long written work for reading

border - n. a dividing line between nations

born - v. to come to life; to come into existence

borrow - v. to take as a loan

both - ad. not just one of two, but the two together

bottle - n. a container, usually made of glass, to hold liquid

bottom - ad. the lowest part of something

box - n. something to put things into; a container, usually made of paper or wood

boy - n. a young male person

boycott - v. to refuse to take part in or deal with

brain - n. the control center of thought, emotions and body activity of all creatures

brave - ad. having no fear

bread - n. a food made from grain

break - v. to divide into parts by force; to destroy

breathe - v. to take air into the body and let it out again

bridge - n. a structure built over a waterway, valley or road so people and vehicles can cross from one side to the other

brief - ad. short; not long

bright - ad. giving much light; strong and clear in color

bring - v. to come with something

broadcast - v. to send information, stories or music by radio or television; n. a radio or television program

brother - n. a male with the same father or mother as another person

brown - ad. having the color like that of coffee

budget - n. a spending plan

build - v. to join materials together to make something

building - n. anything built for use as a house, factory, office, school, store or place of entertainment

bullet - n. a small piece of metal shot from a gun

burn - v. to be on fire; to destroy or damage by fire

burst - v. to break open suddenly

bury - v. to put into the ground and cover with earth

bus - n. a public vehicle to carry people

business - n. one's work; buying and selling to earn money; trade

busy - ad. doing something; very active

but - conj. however; other than; yet

buy - v. to get by paying something, usually money

by - conj. near; at; next to ("by the road"); from ("a play by William Shakespeare"); not later than ("by midnight")



cabinet - n. a group of ministers that helps lead a government

call - v. to give a name to ("I call myself John."); to ask for or request ("They called for an end to the fighting.")

calm - ad. quiet; peaceful; opposite tense

camera - n. a device for taking pictures

camp - n. a place with temporary housing

campaign - n. a competition by opposing political candidates seeking support from voters; a connected series of military actions during a war

can - v. to be able to; to have the right to; n. a container used to hold liquid or food, usually made of metal

cancel - v. to end; to stop

cancer - n. a disease in which dangerous cells grow quickly and destroy parts of the body

candidate - n. a person who seeks or is nominated for an office or an honor

capital - n. the official center of a government; the city where a country's government is

capitalism - n. an economic system in which the production of most goods and services is owned and operated for profit by private citizens or companies

capture - v. to make a person or animal a prisoner; to seize or take by force; to get control of

car - n. a vehicle with wheels used to carry people; an automobile; a part of a train

care - v. to like; to protect; to feel worry or interest

careful - ad. acting safely; with much thought

carry - v. to take something or someone from one place to another

case (court) - n. a legal action

case (medical) - n. an incident of disease ("There was only one case of chicken pox at the school.")

cat - n. a small animal that often lives with humans

catch - v. to seize after a chase; to stop and seize with the hands

cause - v. to make happen; n. the thing or person that produces a result

ceasefire - n. a halt in fighting, usually by agreement

celebrate - v. to honor a person or event with special activities

center - n. the middle of something; the place in the middle; a place that is the main point of an activity

century - n. one hundred years

ceremony - n. an act or series of acts done in a special way established by tradition

chairman - n. a person leading a meeting or an organized group

champion - n. the best; the winner

chance - n. a possibility of winning or losing or that something will happen

change - v. to make different; to become different

charge - v. to accuse someone of something, usually a crime; n. a statement in which someone is accused of something

chase - v. to run or go after someone or something

cheat - v. to get by a trick; to steal from

cheer - v. to shout approval or praise

chemicals - n. elements found in nature or made by people; substances used in the science of chemistry

chemistry - n. the scientific study of substances, what they are made of, how they act under different conditions, and how they form other substances

chief - n. the head or leader of a group; ad. leading; most important

child - n. a baby; a boy or girl

children - n. more than one child

choose - v. to decide between two or more

circle - n. a closed shape that has all its points equally distant from the center, like an "O"

citizen - n. a person who is a member of a country by birth or by law

city - n. any important large town

civilian - ad. not military

civil rights - n. the political, economic and social rights given equally to all people of a nation

claim - v. to say something as a fact

clash - n. a battle; v. to fight or oppose

clean - v. to make pure; ad. free from dirt or harmful substances ("clean water")

clear - ad. easy to see or see through; easily understood

clergy - n. a body of officials within a religious organization

climate - n. the normal weather conditions of a place

climb - v. to go up or down something by using the feet and sometimes the hands

clock - n. a device that measures and shows time

close - v. to make something not open; ad. near to

cloth - n. a material made from plants, chemicals, animal hair and other substances

clothes - n. what people wear

cloud - n. a mass of fog high in the sky

coal - n. a solid black substance used as fuel

coalition - n. forces, groups or nations joined together

coast - n. land on the edge of the ocean

coffee - n. a drink made from the plant of the same name

cold - ad. not warm; having or feeling great coolness or a low temperature

collect - v. to bring or gather together in one place; to demand and receive ("collect taxes")

college - n. a small university

colony - n. land controlled by another country or government

color - n. the different effects of light on the eye, making blue, red, brown, black, yellow and others

combine - v. to mix or bring together

come - v. to move toward; to arrive

command - v. to order; to have power over something

comment - v. to say something about; to express an opinion about something

committee - n. a group of people given special work

common - ad. usual; same for all ("a common purpose")

communicate - v. to tell; to give or exchange information

community - n. a group of people living together in one place or area

company - n. a business organized for trade, industrial or other purposes

compare - v. to examine what is different or similar

compete - v. to try to do as well as, or better than, another or others

complete - ad. having all parts; ended or finished

complex - ad. of or having many parts that are difficult to understand; not simple

compromise - n. the settlement of an argument where each side agrees to accept less than first demanded

computer - n. an electronic machine for storing and organizing information, and for communicating with others

concern - n. interest, worry ("express concern about"); v. to fear ("to be concerned")

condemn - v. to say a person or action is wrong or bad

condition - n. something declared necessary to complete an agreement; a person's health

conference - n. a meeting

confirm - v. to approve; to say that something is true

conflict - n. a fight; a battle, especially a long one

congratulate - v. to praise a person or to express pleasure for success or good luck

Congress - n. the organization of people elected to make the laws of the United States (the House of Representatives and the Senate); a similar organization in other countries

connect - v. to join one thing to another; to unite; to link

conservative - n. one who usually supports tradition and opposes great change

consider - v. to give thought to; to think about carefully

constitution - n. the written general laws and ideas that form a nation's system of government

contain - v. to hold; to include

container - n. a box, bottle or can used to hold something

continent - n. any of the seven great land areas of the world

continue - v. to go on doing or being

control - v. to direct; to have power over

convention - n. a large meeting for a special purpose

cook - v. to heat food before eating it

cool - ad. almost cold

cooperate - v. to act or work together

copy - v. to make something exactly like another; n. something made to look exactly like another

corn - n. a food grain

correct - ad. true; free from mistakes; v. to change to what is right

cost - n. the price or value of something ("The cost of the book is five dollars."); v. to be valued at ("The book costs five dollars.")

cotton - n. a material made from a plant of the same name

count - v. to speak or add numbers

country - n. a nation; the territory of a nation; land away from cities

court - n. where trials take place; where judges make decisions about law

cover - v. to put something over a person or thing; n. anything that is put over a person or thing

cow - n. a farm animal used for its milk

crash - v. to fall violently; to hit with great force

create - v. to make; to give life or form to

creature - n. any living being; any animal or human

credit - n. an agreement that payments will be made at a later time

crew - n. a group of people working together

crime - n. an act that violates a law

criminal - n. a person who is responsible for a crime

crisis - n. an extremely important time when something may become much better or worse; a dangerous situation

criticize - v. to say what is wrong with something or someone; to condemn; to judge

crops - n. plants that are grown and gathered for food, such as grains, fruits and vegetables

cross - v. to go from one side to another; to go across

crowd - n. a large number of people gathered in one place

crush - v. to damage or destroy by great weight; to defeat completely

cry - v. to express or show sorrow or pain

culture - n. all the beliefs, traditions and arts of a group or population

cure - v. to improve health; to make well ("The doctor can cure the disease."); n. something that makes a sick person well ("Antibiotics are a cure for infection.")

curfew - n. an order to people to stay off the streets or to close their businesses

current - n. movement of air, water or electricity; ad. belonging to the present time ("She found the report in a current publication.")

custom - n. a long-established belief or activity of a people

customs - n. taxes on imports

cut - v. to divide or injure with a sharp tool; to make less; to reduce



dam - n. a wall built across a river to hold back flowing water

damage - v. to cause injury or destruction; n. harm; hurt or injury, usually to things

dance - v. to move the body and feet to music; n. a series of steps, usually to music

danger - n. a strong chance of suffering injury, damage or loss

dark - ad. having little or no light ("The room was dark.")

date - n. an expression of time; a day, month and year

daughter - n. a person's female child

day - n. twenty-four hours; the hours of sunlight

dead - ad. not living

deaf - ad. not able to hear

deal - v. to have to do with ("The talks will deal with the problem of pollution."); to buy or sell ("Her company deals in plastic.")

debate - v. to argue for or against something; n. a public discussion or argument

debt - n. something that is owed; the condition of owing

decide - v. to choose; to settle; to judge

declare - v. to say; to make a statement

decrease - v. to make less in size or amount

deep - ad. going far down; a long way from top to bottom

defeat - v. to cause to lose in a battle or struggle; n. a loss; the condition of having lost

defend - v. to guard or fight against attack; to protect

deficit - n. a shortage that results when spending is greater than earnings, or imports are greater than exports

define - v. to give the meaning of; to explain

degree - n. a measure of temperature

delay - v. to decide to do something at a later time; to postpone; to cause to be late

delegate - n. one sent to act for another; one who represents another

demand - v. to ask by ordering; to ask with force

democracy - n. the system of government in which citizens vote to choose leaders or to make other important decisions

demonstrate - v. to make a public show of opinions or feelings ("The crowd demonstrated in support of human rights."); to explain by using examples ("The teacher demonstrated the idea with an experiment.")

denounce - v. to accuse of being wrong or evil; to criticize severely

deny - v. to declare that something is not true; to refuse a request

depend - v. to need help and support

deplore - v. to regret strongly; to express sadness

deploy - v. to move forces or weapons into positions for action

depression - n. severe unhappiness; a period of reduced business and economic activity during which many people lose their jobs

describe - v. to give a word picture of something; to give details of something

desert - n. a dry area of land

design - v. to plan or create plans for

desire - v. to want very much; to wish for

destroy - v. to break into pieces; to end the existence of

detail - n. a small part of something; a small piece of information

develop - v. to grow; to create; to experience progress

device - n. a piece of equipment made for a special purpose

dictator - n. a ruler with complete power

die - v. to become dead; to stop living; to end

diet - n. usual daily food and drink

different - ad. not the same

difficult - ad. not easy; hard to do, make or carry out

dig - v. to make a hole in the ground

dinner - n. the main amount of food eaten at a usual time ("The family had its dinner at noon."); a special event that includes food ("The official dinner took place at the White House.")

diplomat - n. a person who represents his or her government in dealing with another government

direct - v. to lead; to aim or show the way ("He directed me to the theater."); ad. straight to something; not through some other person or thing ("The path is direct.")

direction - n. the way (east, west, north, south); where someone or something came from or went to

dirt - n. earth or soil

disappear - v. to become unseen; to no longer exist

disarm - v. to take away weapons; to no longer keep weapons; to make a bomb harmless by removing its exploding device

discover - v. to find or learn something

discuss - v. to talk about; to exchange ideas

disease - n. a sickness in living things, often caused by viruses, germs or bacteria

dismiss - v. to send away; to refuse to consider

dispute - v. to oppose strongly by argument; n. an angry debate

dissident - n. a person who strongly disagrees with his or her government

distance - n. the amount of space between two places or objects ("The distance from my house to your house is two kilometers.")

dive - v. to jump into water head first

divide - v. to separate into two or more parts

do - v. to act; to make an effort

doctor - n. a person trained in medicine to treat sick people

document - n. an official piece of paper with facts written on it, used as proof or support of something

dog - n. a small animal that often lives with humans

dollar - n. United States money, one hundred cents

door - n. an opening for entering or leaving a building or room

down - ad. from higher to lower; in a low place

dream - v. to have a picture or story in the mind during sleep; n. a picture or story in the mind during sleep; a happy idea about the future

drink - v. to take liquid into the body through the mouth

drive - v. to control a moving vehicle

drop - v. to fall or let fall; to go lower

drown - v. to die under water

drug - n. anything used as a medicine or in making medicine; a chemical substance used to ease pain or to affect the mind

dry - ad. not wet; without rain

during - ad. through the whole time; while (something is happening)

dust - n. pieces of matter so small that they can float in the air

duty - n. one's job or responsibility; what one must do because it is right and just



each - ad. every one by itself

early - ad. at or near the beginning, especially the beginning of the day; opposite late

earn - v. to be paid in return for work done

earth - n. the planet we all live on; the ground or soil

earthquake - n. a sudden, violent shaking of the earth's surface

ease - v. to reduce; to make less difficult

east - n. the direction from which the sun rises

easy - ad. not difficult; not hard to do

eat - v. to take food into the body through the mouth

ecology - n. the scientific study of the environment and links among living and material things

economy - n. the system by which money, industry and trade are organized

edge - n. the line where something ends or begins

education - n. the act of teaching

effect - n. the result or change caused by something ("The storm had a serious effect on the economy.")

effort - n. an attempt; the work necessary to do something

egg - n. the rounded object containing unborn young produced by female birds, fish or reptiles; a single cell in a female person or animal that can develop into a baby

either - ad. one of two, but not the other

elect - v. to choose by voting

electricity - n. a form of energy that flows through wires to provide heat and light, and power to machines

embassy - n. the offices of an ambassador and his or her assistants

emergency - n. an unexpected and dangerous situation demanding quick action

emotion - n. a strong feeling such as love, hate, fear or sadness

employ - v. to give work in return for wages

empty - ad. having nothing inside; v. to remove everything

end - v. to stop; to finish; n. the part which comes last

enemy - n. a person opposing or hating another; a person or people of the other side in a war

energy - n. power used to do work, usually with machines; the ability and willingness to be active

enforce - v. to make something be done

engine - n. a machine that uses energy to cause movement or to do work

engineer - n. a person who designs engines, machines, roads, bridges or railroads

enjoy - v. to be pleased or satisfied by something

enough - ad. as much as necessary; pro. the amount needed

enter - v. to come or go into

environment - n. all surrounding things, conditions and influences that affect life; the natural world of land, sea, air, plants and animals

equal - ad. the same in amount, size, weight or value; having the same rights

equipment - n. things, tools or machines needed for a purpose or activity

escape - v. to get free; to get away from; to get out of

especially - ad. more than others ("We liked the food, especially the fish.")

establish - v. to bring into existence; to create

estimate - v. to form an opinion about a value, size or amount using less than complete information

ethnic - ad. of or concerning people belonging to a large group because of their race, religion, language, tribe or where their ancestors lived

evaporate - v. to change from a liquid into a gas

even - ad. in a way not thought possible ("They survived, even though the building was destroyed.")

event - n. that which happens, especially something of importance

ever - ad. at any time

every - ad. each one; all

evidence - n. material or facts that prove something; a reason for believing

evil - ad. not good; extremely bad

exact - ad. having no mistakes; correct in every detail

examine - v. to study closely

example - n. a part that shows what the rest of a thing or group is like

excellent - ad. extremely good

except - prep. but for

exchange - v. to trade; to give or receive one thing for another

excuse - v. to take away blame; to pardon; to forgive; n. a reason (sometimes false) for an action

execute - v. to kill

exercise - n. an activity or effort for the purpose of improving the body or to stay in good health

exile - v. to force a person to leave his or her country; to expel; n. a person who is forced to leave his or her country

exist - v. to be; to live

expand - v. to make larger; to grow larger

expect - v. to think or believe that something will happen; to wait for an event

expel - v. to force out; to remove from; to send away

experience - v. to live through an event, situation or condition ("She experienced great pain."); n. something that one has done or lived through ("The experience caused her great pain.")

experiment - v. to test; n. a test or trial carried out to prove if an idea is true or false, or to discover something

expert - n. a person with special knowledge or training

explain - v. to give reasons for; to make clear; to tell about; to tell the meaning

explode - v. to break apart violently with a loud noise, like a bomb

explore - v. to travel in a place that is not well known to learn more about it; to make a careful search; to examine closely

export - v. to send to another country; n. something sent to another country, usually for sale

express - v. to say clearly

extend - v. to stretch out in area or length; to continue for a longer time

extra - ad. more than normal, expected or necessary

extreme - ad. more than the usual or accepted

extremist - n. a person with strong religious or political beliefs who acts in an extreme or violent way



face - n. the front of the head: eyes, nose, mouth; v. to look toward; to turn toward; to have before you, such as a problem or danger

fact - n. something known or proved to be true

factory - n. a building or group of buildings where goods are made

fail - v. to not succeed; to not reach a goal

fair - ad. just; honest; what is right

fall - v. to go down quickly; to come down; to drop to the ground or a lower position

false - ad. not true; not correct

family - n. the group that includes children and their parents

famous - ad. known very well to many people

far - ad. at, to or from a great distance

farm - n. land used to grow crops and animals for food

fast - ad. moving or working at great speed; quick

fat - n. tissue in the bodies of humans and animals used to store energy and to keep warm; ad. thick; heavy

father - n. the male parent; a man who has a child or children

fear - v. to be afraid; to worry that something bad is near or may happen ("He feared falling down."); n. a strong emotion when there is danger or trouble ("He had a fear that he would fall down.")

federal - ad. of or having to do with a national or central government

feed - v. to give food to

feel - v. to have or experience an emotion; to know by touching

female - n. a woman or girl; the sex that gives birth; ad. of or about women

fence - n. something around an area of land to keep animals or people in or out

fertile - ad. rich in production of plants or animals; producing much

few - ad. not many; a small number of

field - n. an area of open land, usually used to grow crops or to raise animals

fierce - ad. extremely strong; violent; angry

fight - v. to use violence or force; to attempt to defeat or destroy an enemy; n. the use of force; a battle

fill - v. to put or pour something into a container until there is space for no more

film - v. to record something so it can be seen again; to make a motion picture or movie; n. a thin piece of material for making pictures with a camera; a movie

final - ad. at the end; last

financial - ad. of or about the system that includes the use of money, credit, investments and banks

find - v. to discover or learn something by searching or by accident; to decide a court case ("The jury finds the man guilty of murder.")

fine - n. a payment ordered by a court to punish someone for a crime; ad. very good; very small or thin

finish - v. to complete; to end

fire - v. to shoot a gun; n. the heat and light produced by something burning

fireworks - n. rockets producing bright fire in the sky, used in holiday celebrations

firm - ad. not easily moved or changed ("She is firm in her opinion.")

first - ad. coming before all others

fish - n. a creature that lives and can breathe in water

fit - v. to be of the correct size or shape ("These shoes fit my feet.")

fix - v. to make good or right again

flag - n. a piece of colored cloth used to represent a nation, government or organization

flat - ad. smooth; having no high places

flee - v. to run away from

float - v. to be on water without sinking; to move or be moved gently on water or through air

flood - v. to cover with water; n. the movement of water out of a river, lake or ocean onto land

floor - n. the bottom part of a room for walking on ("The book fell to the floor."); the level of a building ("The fire was on the first floor.")

flow - v. to move like a liquid

flower - n. the colored part of plants that carry seeds

fluid - n. any substance that can flow, such as a liquid

fly - v. to move through the air with wings, like a bird or airplane; to travel in an airplane or flying vehicle

fog - n. a mass of wet air that is difficult to see through; a cloud close to the ground

follow - v. to come or go after; to accept the rule or power of; to obey

food - n. that which is taken in by all living things for energy, strength and growth

fool - v. to make someone believe something that is not true; to trick; n. a person who is tricked easily

foot - n. the bottom part of the leg; the part of the body that touches the ground when a person or animal walks

for - prep. because of ("He is famous for his work."); in exchange ("Give me one dollar for the book."); through space or time ("They travelled for one hour."); representative of ("I speak for all people."); to be employed by ("She works for a computer company.")

force - v. to make someone do something or make something happen by using power; n. power, strength; strength used against a person or object; military power of a nation; a military group

foreign - ad. of, about or from another nation; not from one's own place or country

forest - n. a place of many trees

forget - v. to not remember

forgive - v. to pardon; to excuse; to remove guilt

form - v. to make; to start; to shape ("They formed a swim team."); n. a kind ("Swimming is a form of exercise.")

former - ad. earlier in time; not now

forward - ad. the direction in front of; toward the front

free - v. to release; ad. not controlled by another or by outside forces; not in prison; independent; not limited by rules; without cost

freedom - n. the condition of being free

freeze - v. to cause or to become very cold; to make or to become hard by cold

fresh - ad. newly made or gathered; recent

friend - n. a person one likes and trusts

frighten - v. to cause great fear

from - prep. having a person, place or thing as a beginning or cause ("It is a message from the president."); at a place distant, not near ("The school is five kilometers from my home."); because of ("He is suffering from cancer.")

front - n. the forward part; the opposite of back; the beginning; the first part

fruit - n. food from trees and plants

fuel - n. any substance burned to create heat or power

full - ad. containing as much as a person or thing can hold; complete

fun - n. anything that is pleasing and causes happiness

funeral - n. a ceremony held in connection with the burial or burning of the dead

future - n. time after now ("We can talk about it in the future."); ad. in the time to come ("All future meetings will be held in this room.")



gain - v. to get possession of; to get more; to increase

game - n. an activity with rules in which people or teams play or compete, usually sports

gas - n. any substance that is not solid or liquid; any substance that burns to provide heat, light or power

gather - v. to bring or come together into a group or place; to collect

general - n. a high military leader; ad. without details; affecting or including all or almost all

gentle - ad. soft; kind; not rough or violent

get - v. to receive; to gain; to go and bring back; to become; to become the owner

gift - n. something given without cost

girl - n. a young female person

give - v. to present to another to keep without receiving payment

glass - n. a hard, clear material that is easily broken, used most often for windows or for containers to hold liquids

go - v. to move from one place to another; to leave

goal - n. that toward which an effort is directed; that which is aimed at; the end of a trip or race

god - n. the spirit that is honored as creator of all things ("They believe in God."); a spirit or being believed in many religions to have special powers

gold - n. a highly valued yellow metal

good - ad. pleasing; helpful; kind; correct; not bad

goods - n. things owned or made to be sold

govern - v. to control; to rule by military or political power

government - n. a system of governing; the organization of people that rules a country, city or area

grain - n. the seed of grass plants used for food, such as wheat, rice and corn; those plants that produce the seeds

granddaughter - n. the daughter of a person's daughter or son

grandfather - n. the father of a person's father or mother

grandmother - n. the mother of a person's father or mother

grandson - n. the son of a person's daughter or son

grass - n. a plant with long, narrow, green leaves

gray - ad. having the color like that made by mixing black and white

great - ad. very large or more than usual in size or number; very good; important

green - ad. having the color like that made by mixing yellow and blue; having the color like that of growing leaves and grass

grind - v. to reduce to small pieces by crushing

ground - n. land; the earth's surface; soil

group - n. a number of people or things together; a gathering of people working for a common purpose

grow - v. to develop or become bigger; to increase in size or amount

guarantee - v. to promise a result; to promise that something will happen

guard - v. to watch and protect a person, place or thing ("He guards the president."); n. a person or thing that watches or protects ("He is a prison guard.")

guerrilla - n. a person who fights as part of an unofficial army, usually against an official army or police

guide - v. to lead to; to show the way; n. one who shows the way

guilty - ad. having done something wrong or in violation of a law; responsible for a bad action

gun - n. a weapon that shoots bullets



hair - n. the fine material that grows from the skin, especially from the head

half - n. one of two equal parts of something

halt - v. to come or cause to come to a stop; to stop

hang - v. to place something so the highest part is supported and the lower part is not; to kill by hanging

happen - v. to become a fact or event; to take place

happy - ad. pleased; satisfied; feeling good; not sad

hard - ad. not easily cut or broken; solid; difficult to do or understand; needing much effort or force

harm - v. to injure; to damage; n. damage; hurt

harvest - v. to gather crops; n. the crop after it is gathered

hat - n. a head cover

hate - v. to have strong emotions against; to consider as an enemy; opposite love

have - v. to possess; to own; to hold

he - pro. the boy or man who is being spoken about

head - v. to lead; to command; n. leader; chief; the top part of something; the highest position

headquarters - n. the center from which orders are given; the main offices of a business or organization

heal - v. to return to good health; to cure; to become well

health - n. the general condition of the body and mind; the condition of being free from sickness or disease

hear - v. to receive sound through the ears; to receive news about

heat - v. to make hot or warm; n. great warmth; that which is produced by burning fuel; energy from the sun

heavy - ad. having much weight; not easy to lift; of great amount or force

helicopter - n. a machine without wings that can fly up or down or remain in one place above the ground

help - v. to give support; to assist; to make easier; n. support; aid

here - ad. in, to or at this place

hero - n. a person honored for being brave or wise

hide - v. to prevent from being seen or found; to make secret

high - ad. tall; far up; far above the ground; important; above others

hijack - v. to seize or take control of a vehicle by force

hill - n. a small mountain

history - n. the written record or description of past events; the study of the past

hit - v. to strike; to touch with force

hold - v. to carry or support, usually in the hands or arms; to keep in one position; to keep as a prisoner; to contain; to possess; to occupy; to organize and be involved in ("The two sides hold talks this week.")

hole - n. an opening; a torn or broken place in something

holiday - n. a day when one does not work; a day on which no work is done to honor or remember a person or event

holy - ad. greatly honored in religion

home - n. the building where a person lives, especially with family; the place where one was born or comes from; the area or country where one lives

honest - ad. truthful; able to be trusted

honor - v. to obey; to show strong, good feelings for ("to honor one's parents"); n. an award; an act of giving special recognition ("He received many honors for his efforts to help others.")

hope - v. to expect; to believe there is a good chance that something will happen as wanted; to want something to happen

horrible - ad. causing great fear; terrible

horse - n. a large animal often used for racing, riding or farm work

hospital - n. a place where sick or injured people are given medical care

hostage - n. a person captured and held as a guarantee that a demand or promise will be honored

hostile - ad. ready to fight; ready for war

hot - ad. having or feeling great heat or a high temperature

hotel - n. a building with rooms, and often food, for travellers

hour - n. a measure of time; sixty minutes

house - n. a building in which people live; a country's parliament or lawmaking group ("House of Representatives")

how - ad. in what way; to what amount

however - conj. yet; but

huge - ad. very big; of great size

human - ad. of or about people

humor - n. the ability to understand, enjoy or express what makes people laugh

hunger - n. the need for food

hunt - v. to search for animals to capture or kill them; to seek; to try to find

hurry - v. to do or go fast

hurt - v. to cause pain, injury or damage

husband - n. a man who is married



I - pro. the person speaking

ice - n. frozen water

idea - n. a thought or picture in the mind; a belief

identify - v. to recognize someone or something and to say who or what they are

if - conj. on condition; provided that ("I will go if you go.")

illegal - ad. not legal; in violation of a law

imagine - v. to make a picture in the mind; to form an idea

immediate - ad. without delay; very near in time or place

import - v. to bring from another country; n. something brought from another country, usually for sale

important - ad. having great meaning, value or power

improve - v. to make better; to become better

in - prep. inside; held by; contained by; surrounded by; during

incident - n. an event or something that happens

incite - v. to urge or cause an action or emotion, usually something bad or violent

include - v. to have; to make a part of

increase - v. to make more in size or amount

independent - ad. not influenced by or controlled by another or others; free; separate

individual - n. one person

industry - n. any business that produces goods or provides services; the work and related activity in factories and offices; all organizations involved in manufacturing

infect - v. to make sick with something that causes disease

inflation - n. a continuing rise in prices while the value of money goes down

influence - v. to have an effect on someone or something; to cause change

inform - v. to tell; to give knowledge to

information - n. knowledge; facts

inject - v. to force a fluid into, such as putting medicine or drugs into the body through the skin

injure - v. to cause harm or damage to a person or animal

innocent - ad. not guilty of a crime; not responsible for a bad action

insane - ad. mentally sick

insect - n. a very small creature, usually with many legs and sometimes with wings

inspect - v. to look at something carefully; to examine, especially by an expert

instead - ad. in the place of; taking the place of

instrument - n. a tool or device designed to do something or to make something

insult - v. to say something or to do something that makes another person angry or dishonored

intelligence - n. the ability to think or learn; information gathered by spying

intelligent - ad. quick to understand or learn

intense - ad. very strong; extremely serious

interest - n. what is important to someone ("He acted to protect his interests." "She had a great interest in painting."); a share in owning a business; money paid for the use of money borrowed

interfere - v. to get in the way of; to work against; to take part in the activities of others, especially when not asked to do so

international - ad. of or about more than one nation or many nations; of the whole world

intervene - v. to come between; to come between in order to settle or solve

invade - v. to enter an area or country by force with an army

invent - v. to plan and make something never made before; to create a new thing or way of doing something

invest - v. to give money to a business or organization with the hope of making more money

investigate - v. to study or examine all information about an event, situation or charge; to search for the truth

invite - v. to ask someone to take part in or join an event, organization or gathering

involve - v. to take part in; to become a part of; to include

iron - n. a strong, hard metal used to make machines and tools

island - n. a land area with water all around it

issue - n. an important problem or subject that people are discussing or arguing about

it - pro. a thing, place, event or idea that is being spoken about ("The sky is blue, but it also has a few white clouds.")



jail - n. a prison for those waiting to be tried for a crime or for those serving sentences for crimes that are not serious

jewel - n. a valuable stone, such as a diamond or emerald

job - n. the work that one does to earn money

join - v. to put together or come together; to become part of or a member of

joint - ad. shared by two or more

joke - n. something done or said to cause others to laugh

judge - v. to form an opinion about; to decide a question, especially a legal one; n. a public official who decides problems of law in a court

jump - v. to push down on the feet and move up quickly into the air

jury - n. a group of people chosen to decide what is true in a trial

just - ad. only ("Help me for just a minute."); very shortly before or after the present ("He just left."); at the same time ("He left just as I came in."); what is right or fair ("The law is just, in my opinion.")



keep - v. to possess; to have for oneself

kick - v. to hit with the foot

kidnap - v. to seize and take away by force

kill - v. to make dead; to cause to die

kind - n. sort ("What kind of dog is that?"); ad. gentle; caring; helpful

kiss - v. to touch with the mouth to show love or honor

knife - n. a tool or weapon used to cut

know - v. to understand something as correct; to have the facts about; to recognize someone because you have met and talked together before

knowledge - n. that which is known; learning or understanding



labor - n. work; workers as a group

laboratory - n. a room or place where experiments in science are done

lack - v. to be without; n. the condition of needing, wanting or not having

lake - n. a large area of fresh water surrounded by land

land - v. to come to the earth from the air ("Airplanes land at airports."); n. the part of the earth not covered by water; the ground

language - n. words and their use; what people speak in a country, nation or group

large - ad. big; being of more than usual size, amount or number; opposite small

last - v. to continue ("The talks will last three days."); ad. after all others; the only one remaining ("She is the last person in line.")

late - ad. after the correct time; near the end; opposite early

laugh - v. to make sounds to express pleasure or happy feelings

launch - v. to put into operation; to begin; to send into the air or space

law - n. all or any rules made by a government

lead - v. to show the way; to command; to control; to go first

leak - v. to come out of or to escape through a small opening or hole (usually a gas or liquid)

learn - v. to get knowledge about; to come to know a fact or facts

leave - v. to go away from; to let something stay where it is

left - ad. on the side that is toward the west when one is facing north; opposite right

legal - ad. of or in agreement with the law

legislature - n. a government lawmaking group

lend - v. to permit someone to use a thing temporarily; to make a loan of money

less - ad. smaller in amount; not as much

let - v. to permit to do or to be; to make possible

letter - n. a message written on paper; a communication in writing sent to another person

level - n. the amount or height that something reaches or rises to; the position of something or someone

liberal - ad. one who usually supports social progress or change

lie - v. to have one's body on the ground or other surface; to say something that one knows is not true

life - n. the time between being born and dying; opposite death; all living things

lift - v. to take or bring up to a higher place or level

light - n. a form of energy that affects the eyes so that one is able to see; anything that produces light; ad. bright; clear; not heavy

lightning - n. light produced by electricity in the air, usually during a storm

like - v. to be pleased with; to have good feelings for someone or something; ad. in the same way as; similar to

limit - v. to restrict to a number or amount; n. the greatest amount or number permitted

line - n. a long, thin mark on a surface; a number of people or things organized; one after another; the edge of an area protected by military forces

link - v. to connect; to unite one thing or event with another; n. a relation between two or more things, situations or events

liquid - n. a substance that is not a solid or gas, and can move freely, like water

list - v. to put in writing a number of names of people or things; n. a written series of names or things

listen - v. to try to hear

literature - n. all the poems, stories and writings of a period of time or of a country

little - ad. not tall or big; a small amount

live - v. to have life; to exist; ad. having life; alive

load - v. to put objects on or into a vehicle or container; n. that which is carried

loan - n. money borrowed that usually must be returned with interest payments; something borrowed

local - ad. about or having to do with one place

lonely - ad. feeling alone and wanting friends; visited by few or no people ("a lonely man")

long - ad. not short; measuring from beginning to end; measuring much; for much time

look - v. to turn the eyes toward so as to see; to search or hunt for; to seem to be

lose - v. to have no longer; to not find; to fail to keep; to be defeated

loud - ad. having a strong sound; full of sound or noise

love - v. to like very much; to feel a strong, kind emotion (sometimes involving sex); n. a strong, kind emotion for someone or something; opposite hate

low - ad. not high or tall; below the normal height; close to the ground

loyal - ad. showing strong friendship and support for someone or something

luck - n. something that happens by chance



machine - n. a device with moving parts used to do work

magazine - n. a publication of news, stories, pictures or other information

mail - n. letters, papers and other things sent through an official system, such as a post office

main - ad. the most important or largest

major - ad. great in size, importance or amount

majority - n. the greater number; more than half

make - v. to produce; to create; to build; to do something or to carry out an action; to cause to be or to become

male - n. a man or boy; the sex that is the father of children; ad. of or about men

man - n. an adult male human

manufacture - v. to make goods in large amounts

many - ad. a large number or amount of

map - n. a picture of the earth's surface or a part of it

march - v. to walk in a group like soldiers; to walk together in a large group to protest about something

mark - v. to make a sign or cut on something

market - n. a place or area where goods are sold, bought or traded; an economic system in which the prices of things are decided by how many there are and how much money people are willing to pay for them

marry - v. to join a man and woman together as husband and wife; to become husband and wife (usually in a religious or civil ceremony)

mass - n. an amount of matter having no special form and usually of a large size

mate - v. to bring together a male and a female to create another creature

material - n. the substance, substances or matter of which something is made or from which something can be made, such as wood, cloth or stone; anything that can be made into something else

mathematics - n. the science dealing with amounts, sizes and shapes, as explained by numbers and signs

matter - n. anything that can be seen or felt; what things are made of

may - v. a word used with an action word to mean permit or possible ("May I go?" "They may leave tomorrow.")

mayor - n. the chief official of a city or town government

meal - n. food eaten to satisfy hunger, such as dinner

mean - v. to want to; to give the idea of; to have the idea of

measure - v. to learn the amount, size or distance of something; n. an action taken; a legislative proposal

meat - n. the part of a dead animal used for food

media - n. all public information organizations, including newspapers, television and radio

medicine - n. a substance or drug used to treat disease or pain; the science or study of treating and curing disease or improving health

meet - v. to come together with someone or something at the same time and place

melt - v. to make a solid into a liquid by heating it

member - n. one of a group

memorial - n. something done or made to honor the memory of a person or event

memory - n. a picture in the mind of past events; the ability to remember; a thing remembered

mental - ad. about or having to do with the mind

mercy - n. kindness toward those who should be punished; the power to be kind or to pardon

message - n. written or spoken news or information; a note from one person to another person or group

metal - n. a hard substance such as iron, steel or gold

method - n. the way something is done

microscope - n. a device used to make very small things look larger so they can be studied

middle - n. the center; a place or time of equal distance from both sides or ends; ad. in the center

militant - n. someone active in trying to cause political change, often by the use of force or violence

military - n. the armed forces of a nation or group; ad. of or about the armed forces

milk - n. the white liquid produced by female animals to feed their young

mind - n. the thinking, feeling part of a person

mine - v. to dig useful or valuable substances out of the earth; n. a place in the earth where such substances are found; a bomb placed under the ground or under water
so it cannot be seen

mineral - n. a substance found in nature that is not an animal or a plant, such as coal or salt

minister - n. a member of a cabinet; a high government official ("prime minister,"foreign minister")

minor - ad. small in size; of little importance

minority - n. the smaller number; opposite majority

minute - n. a measure of time; one of the sixty equal parts of an hour; sixty seconds

miss - v. to fail to hit, see, reach or meet

missile - n. any weapon that can be thrown or fired through the air and explodes when it reaches its target

missing - ad. lost; not found

mistake - n. a wrong action or decision; an action done without the knowledge that it was wrong

mix - v. to put different things together to make one thing

mob - n. a large group of wild or angry people

model - n. an example; something, usually small, made to show how something will look or work

moderate - ad. not extreme

modern - ad. of the present or very recent time; the most improved

money - n. pieces of metal or paper used to pay for things

month - n. one of the twelve periods of time into which a year is divided

moon - n. the bright object often seen in the night sky that orbits the earth about every twenty-nine days

moral - ad. concerning what is right or wrong in someone's actions

more - ad. greater in size or amount

morning - n. the early part of the day, from sunrise until noon

most - ad. greatest in size or amount

mother - n. the female parent; a woman who has a child or children

motion - n. a movement; a continuing change of position or place

mountain - n. a part of the earth's surface that rises high above the area around it

mourn - v. to express or feel sadness

move - v. to change position; to put or keep in motion; to go

movement - n. the act of moving or a way of moving; a series of acts or efforts to reach a goal

movie - n. a motion picture; a film

much - ad. great in amount

murder - v. to kill another person illegally; n. the crime of killing another person

music - n. the making of sounds by singing or using a musical instrument

must - v. a word used with an action word to mean necessary ("You must go to school.")

mystery - n. something that is not or cannot be explained or understood; a secret



name - v. to appoint; to nominate; to give a name to; n. a word by which a person,
animal or thing is known or called

narrow - ad. limited in size or amount; not wide; having a short distance from one side to the other

nation - n. a country, together with its social and political systems

native - n. someone who was born in a place, not one who moved there

natural - ad. of or about nature; normal; common to its kind

nature - n. all the plants, animals and other things on earth not created by humans; events or processes not caused by humans

navy - n. the part of a country's military force trained to fight at sea

near - ad. not far; close to

necessary - ad. needed to get a result or effect; required

need - v. to require; to want; to be necessary to have or to do

negotiate - v. to talk about a problem or situation to find a common solution

neither - ad. not one or the other of two

neutral - ad. not supporting one side or the other in a dispute

never - ad. at no time; not ever

new - ad. not existing before; not known before; recently made, built, bought or grown; another; different

news - n. information about any recent events, especially as reported by the media

next - ad. coming immediately after; nearest

nice - ad. pleasing; good; kind

night - n. the time between when the sun goes down and when it rises, when there is little or no light

no - ad. used to reject or to refuse; not any; not at all

noise - n. sound, especially when loud

nominate - v. to name someone as a candidate for an election; to propose a person for an office or position

noon - n. the middle of the day; twelve o'clock in the daytime

normal - n. the usual condition, amount or form; ad. usual; what is expected

north - n. the direction to the left of a person facing the rising sun

not - ad. a word showing that something is denied or untrue ("She is not going.")

note - v. to talk about something already known; n. a word or words written to help a person remember; a short letter

nothing - n. not anything; no thing

now - ad. at this time; immediately

nowhere - ad. not in, to or at any place

nuclear - ad. of or about the energy produced by splitting atoms or bringing them together; of or about weapons that explode by using energy from atoms

number - n. a word or sign used to show the order or amount of things



obey - v. to act as one is ordered to act

object - v. to show that one does not like or approve; to protest; n. something not alive that can be seen or touched

observe - v. to watch; to look at carefully; to celebrate or honor something ("They
will observe the anniversary of the day she was born.")

occupy - v. to take and hold or to control by force

ocean - n. the area of salt water that covers almost seventy-five percent of the earth's surface; any of the five main divisions of this water

of - prep. made from; belonging to; about; connected to; included among

off - ad. away; at a distance; condition when something is no longer operating or continuing; not on; not connected

offensive - n. a military campaign of attack; ad. having to do with attacking

offer - v. to present or propose; n. the act of presenting or proposing; that which is presented or proposed

office - n. a room or building where business or work is done; a public position to which one is elected or appointed

officer - n. a person in the military who commands others; any person who is a member of a police force

official - n. a person with power in an organization; a representative of an organization or government; ad. of or about an office; approved by the government or someone in power

often - ad. many times

oil - n. a thick liquid that does not mix with water and that burns easily; a black liquid taken from the ground and used as fuel

old - ad. not young or new; having lived or existed for many years

on - prep. above and held up by; touching the upper surface of ("The book is on the table."); supported by ("He is on his feet."); about ("The report on the meeting is ready."); at the time of ("He left on Wednesday.")

once - ad. one time only

only - ad. being the single one or ones; no more than ("We have only two dollars.")

open - v. to start ("They opened talks."); ad. not closed; not secret

operate - v. to do work or a job; to cut into the body for medical reasons

opinion - n. a belief based on one's own ideas and thinking

oppose - v. to be against; to fight against

opposite - ad. different as possible; completely different from; exactly the other way ("North is the opposite direction from south.")

oppress - v. to make others suffer; to control by the use of unjust and cruel force or power

or - conj. giving another of two choices; giving the last of several choices

orbit - v. to travel in space around a planet or other object; n. the path or way an object travels in space around another object or planet

order - v. to give a command; to tell someone what to do; n. a command; the correct or normal way things are organized; a peaceful situation in which people obey laws

organize - v. to put in order; to put together into a system

other - ad. different; of another kind; the remaining one or ones of two or more ">("That man is short; the other is tall.")

our - ad. of or belonging to us

oust - v. to force to leave; to remove by force

out - ad. away from the inside; opposite of in

over - conj. above; covering; across, in or on every part of ("all over the world")

overthrow - v. to remove from power; to defeat or end by force

owe - v. to pay or have to repay (usually money) in return for something received

own - v. to have or possess for oneself



pain - n. a hurt or suffering somewhere in the body

paint - v. to cover with a liquid color; to make a picture with liquid colors; n. a colored liquid used to cover or protect a surface

pan - n. a metal container used for cooking

paper - n. a thin, flat material made from plants or cloth often used for writing

parachute - n. a device that permits a person or thing to fall slowly from an airplane or helicopter to the ground

parade - n. a group of people and vehicles moving together to celebrate a special event or anniversary

pardon - v. to forgive for a crime and release from punishment

parent - n. a father or mother

parliament - n. a government lawmaking group

part - n. something less than the whole; not all of something

party - n. a group of people working together for a political purpose; a group of people or friends gathered together for enjoyment

pass - v. to go by or move around something; to move along; to cause or permit to go

passenger - n. a person travelling by airplane, train, boat or car who is not the pilot or driver

passport - n. a document permitting a person to travel to another country

past - n. the time gone by; the time before; ad. recent; immediately before; former

path - n. a narrow way for walking; a way along which something moves

patient - n. a person being treated by a doctor for a health problem

pay - v. to give money for work done or for something bought

peace - n. the condition of freedom from war, fighting or noise; rest; quiet

people - n. any group of persons; all the persons of a group, race, religion or nation ("the American people")

percent - n. a part of every hundred ("Ten is ten percent of one hundred.")

perfect - ad. complete or correct in every way; completely right or good; without mistakes

perform - v. to speak, dance or sing in front of others

period - n. an amount of time within events, restrictions or conditions

permanent - ad. never changing; lasting for a very long time or for all time

permit - v. to let; to make possible

person - n. a man, woman or child

physical - ad. of the body

physics - n. the study of motion, matter and energy

picture - n. something that shows what another thing looks like; an idea or representation of something as seen by the eye; a painting; what is made with a camera

piece - n. a part of something larger

pig - n. a farm animal used for its meat

pilot - n. one who guides or flies an airplane or helicopter

pipe - n. a long, round piece of material used to move liquid or gas

place - v. to put something somewhere; n. an area or a part of an area; space where a person or thing is; any room, building, town or country

plan - v. to organize or develop an idea or method of acting or doing something ">("They plan to have a party."); n. an organized or developed idea or method ("The plan will not work.")

planet - n. a large object in space that orbits the sun ("Earth is a planet.")

plant - v. to put into the ground to grow; n. a living growth from the ground which gets its food from air, water and earth

plastic - n. a material made from chemicals that can be formed and made into things

play - v. to have fun; to not work; to take part in a sport; to make music on an instrument; n. a story acted in a theater

please - v. to make one happy; to give enjoyment

plenty - n. all that is needed; a large enough amount

plot - v. to make secret plans; n. a secret plan to do something wrong or illegal

poem - n. words and their sounds organized in a special way to express emotions

point - v. to aim one's finger toward; to aim; n. the sharp end of something

poison - n. a substance that can destroy life or damage health

police - n. a government agency responsible for guarding the public, keeping order, and making sure people obey the law; members of that agency

policy - n. an established set of plans or goals used to develop and make decisions in politics, economics or business

politics - n. the activities of government and of those who are in public office

pollute - v. to release dangerous or unpleasant substances into the air, soil or water

poor - n. people with little or no money; ad. lacking money or goods; of bad quality

popular - ad. liked by many people; generally approved by the public

population - n. all the people in a place, city or country

port - n. a city where ships load or unload goods; a place on a coast where ships can be safe from a storm

position - n. a place; the way of holding the body; the way a thing is set or placed; a job (or level of a job) in an organization

possess - v. to have; to own; to control or be controlled by

possible - ad. able to be done; can happen or is expected to happen

postpone - v. to delay action until a later time

pour - v. to flow; to cause to flow

power - n. the ability to control or direct others; control; strength; ruling force; force or energy used to do work ("Water power turns the wheel.")

praise - v. to say good things about; to approve

pray - v. to make a request to a god or spirit; to praise a god or spirit

pregnant - ad. carrying a child within the body before it is born; expecting to give birth to a baby

present - v. to offer for consideration ("We will present our idea to the committee."); n. a gift ("I gave them a present for their anniversary."); now ("The present time is a good time."); ad. to be at a place ("I was present at school yesterday.")

president - n. the chief official of a country that is a republic; the leader of an organization

press - v. to urge strongly; n. newspapers, magazines and other publications

pressure - n. the force produced when something is pushed down or against something else

prevent - v. to keep or stop from going or happening

price - n. the amount of money for which anything is bought, sold or offered for sale

prison - n. a place where a person is kept as punishment for a crime

private - ad. of or about a person or group that is secret; opposite public

prize - n. something offered or won in a competition; something of value that one must work hard for to get

probably - ad. a good chance of taking place; a little more than possible

problem - n. a difficult question or situation with an unknown or unclear answer

process - n. an operation or series of changes leading to a desired result

produce - v. to make; to create; to cause something to be; to manufacture

profession - n. a job that requires special training

professor - n. a teacher at a
college or university

profit - n. money gained from a business activity after paying all costs of that activity

program - n. a plan of action; the different events or parts of a meeting or show

progress - n. movement forward or toward improvement or a goal

project - n. a planned effort to do something

propaganda - n. ideas or information used to influence opinions

property - n. anything owned by someone such as land, buildings or goods

propose - v. to present or offer for consideration

protect - v. to guard; to defend; to prevent from being harmed or damaged

protest - v. to speak against; to object

prove - v. to show to be true

provide - v. to give something needed or wanted

public - ad. of or about all the people in a community or country; opposite private

publication - n. something that is published such as a book, newspaper or magazine

publish - v. to make public something that is written; to include something in a book, newspaper or magazine

pull - v. to use force to move something toward the person or thing using the force; opposite push

pump - v. to force a gas or liquid up, into or through

punish - v. to cause pain, suffering or loss for doing something bad or illegal

purchase - v. to buy with money or with something of equal value; n. that which is bought

pure - ad. free from anything that is different or that reduces value; clean

purpose - n. the reason or desired effect for doing something; goal

push - v. to use force to move something away from the person or thing using the force; opposite pull

put - v. to place; to set in position



quality - n. that which something is known to have or be ("An important quality of steel is its strength."); amount of value or excellence ("Their goods are of the highest quality.")

question - v. to ask; to express wonder or disbelief; n. a sentence or word used in asking for information; a problem; an issue to be discussed

quick - ad. fast

quiet - ad. with little or no noise; having little or no movement; calm



race - v. to run; to take part in a competition to decide who or what can move fastest; to take part in a campaign for political office; n. one of the major groups that humans can be divided into because of a common physical similarity, such as skin color

radar - n. a device that uses radio signals to learn the position or speed of objects that may be too far away to be seen

radiation - n. waves of energy from something that produces heat or light; energy from a nuclear substance, which can be dangerous

radio - n. the system of sending and receiving signals or sounds through the air without wires

raid - v. to make a sudden attack; n. a sudden attack carried out as an act of war, or for the purpose of seizing or stealing something

railroad - n. a road for trains; a company that operates such a road and its stations and equipment

rain - n. water falling from the sky

raise - v. to lift up; to move to a higher position; to cause to grow; to increase

rare - ad. not common; not usual; not often

rate - n. speed; a measure of how quickly or how often something happens; the price of any thing or service that is bought or sold

reach - v. to put a hand toward; to arrive at; to come to

react - v. to act as a result of or in answer to

read - v. to look at and understand the meaning of written words or numbers

ready - ad. prepared; completed; organized; willing

real - ad. true; truly existing; not false

realistic - ad. in agreement with the way things are

reason - n. the cause for a belief or act; purpose; something that explains

reasonable - ad. ready to listen to reasons or ideas; not extreme; ready or willing to compromise

rebel - v. to act against a government or power, often with force; to refuse to obey; n. one who opposes or fights against the government of his or her country

receive - v. to get or accept something given, offered or sent

recent - ad. a short time ago

recession - n. a temporary reduction in economic activity, when industries produce less and many workers lose their jobs

recognize - v. to know or remember something or someone that was known, known about or seen before; to accept another nation as independent and establish diplomatic ties with its government

record - v. to write something in order to have it for future use; to put sound or pictures in a form that can be kept and heard or seen again; n. a writing that shows proof or facts about something

recover - v. to get again something that was lost, stolen or taken away ("The police recovered the stolen money."); to return to normal health or normal conditions She is expected to recover from the operation.")

red - ad. having the color like that of blood

reduce - v. to make less or smaller in number, size or amount; to cut

reform - v. to make better by changing; to improve; n. a change to a better condition

refugee - n. a person who has been forced to flee because of unjust treatment, danger or war

refuse - v. to reject; to not accept, give or do something

regret - n. a feeling of sadness or sorrow about something that is done or that happens

reject - v. to refuse to accept, use or believe

relations - n. understandings or ties between nations; members of the same family; people connected by marriage or family ties

release - v. to free; to permit to go; to permit to be known or made public

religion - n. a belief in, or the honoring of, a god or gods

remain - v. to stay in a place after others leave; to stay the same

remains - n. a dead body

remember - v. to think about the past; opposite forget

remove - v. to take away or take off; to put an end to; to take out of a position or office

repair - n. work done to fix something

repeat - v. to say or do again

report - v. to tell about; to give the results of a study or investigation; n. the story about an event; the results of a study or investigation; a statement in which the facts may not be confirmed

represent - v. to act in the place of someone else; to substitute for; to serve as an example

repress - v. to control or to restrict freedoms by force

request - v. to ask for; n. the act of asking for

require - v. to need or demand as necessary

rescue - v. to free from danger or evil

research - n. a careful study to discover correct information

resign - v. to leave a position, job or office

resist - v. to oppose; to fight to prevent

resolution - n. an official statement of agreement by a group of people, usually reached by voting

resource - n. anything of value that can be used or sold

responsible - ad. having a duty or job to do ("He is responsible for preparing the report."); being the cause of ("They were responsible for the accident.")

rest - v. to sit, lie down or sleep to regain strength; n. that which remains; the others

restrain - v. to keep controlled; to limit action by a person or group

restrict - v. to limit; to prevent from increasing or becoming larger

result - v. to happen from a cause; n. that which follows or is produced by a cause; effect

retire - v. to leave a job or position because one is old or in poor health

return - v. to go or come back; to bring, give, take or send back

revolt - v. to protest violently; to fight for a change, especially of government

rice - n. a food grain

rich - ad. having much money or goods; having plenty of something

ride - v. to sit on or in and be carried along; to travel by animal, wheeled vehicle, airplane or boat

right - n. what a person legally and morally should be able to do or have ("It is their right to vote."); ad. agreeing with the facts; good; correct; opposite wrong; on the side that is toward the east when one is facing north; opposite left

riot - v. to act with many others in a violent way in a public place; n. a violent action by a large group of people

rise - v. to go up; to go higher; to increase; to go from a position of sitting or lying to a position of standing

risk - n. the chance of loss, damage or injury

river - n. a large amount of water that flows across land into another river, a lake or an ocean

road - n. a long piece of hard ground built between two places so people can walk, drive or ride easily from one place to the other

rob - v. to take money or property secretly or by force; to steal

rock - n. a hard piece of mineral matter

rocket - n. a device shaped like a tube that moves through air or space by burning gases and letting them escape from the back or bottom, sometimes used as a weapon

roll - v. to turn over and over; to move like a ball

room - n. a separate area within a building with its own walls

root - n. the part of a plant that is under the ground and takes nutrients from the soil

rope - n. a long, thick piece of material made from thinner pieces of material, used for tying

rough - ad. not flat or smooth; having an uneven surface; violent; not made well

round - ad. having the shape of a ball or circle

rub - v. to move something over the surface of another thing

rubber - n. a substance made from the liquid of trees with the same name, or a similar substance made from chemicals

ruin - v. to damage severely; to destroy

rule - v. to govern or control; to decide; n. a statement or an order that says how something must be done

run - v. to move quickly by steps faster than those used for walking



sabotage - v. to damage or destroy as an act against an organization or nation ("The rebels sabotaged the railroad.")

sacrifice - v. to do without something or to suffer a loss for a belief, idea, goal or another person

sad - ad. not happy

safe - ad. away from harm or danger

sail - v. to travel by boat or ship

sailor - n. a person involved in sailing a boat or ship

salt - n. a white substance found in sea water and in the ground, used to affect the taste of food

same - ad. not different; not changed; like another or others

sand - n. extremely small pieces of crushed rock found in large amounts in deserts and on coasts

satellite - n. a small object in space that moves around a larger object; an object placed in orbit around the earth

satisfy - v. to give or provide what is desired, needed or demanded

save - v. to make safe; to remove from harm; to keep for future use

say - v. to speak; to express in words

school - n. a place for education; a place where people go to learn

science - n. the study of nature and the actions of natural things, and the knowledge gained about them

sea - n. a large area of salt water, usually part of an ocean

search - v. to look for carefully

season - n. one of the four periods of the year that is based on the earth's position toward the sun (spring, summer, autumn, winter); a period of time based on different weather conditions ("dry season", "rainy season"); a period during the year when something usually happens ("baseball season")

seat - n. a thing to sit on; a place to sit or the right to sit there ("a seat in parliament")

second - ad. the one that comes after the first

secret - n. something known only to a few and kept from general knowledge; ad. hidden from others; known only to a few

security - n. freedom from danger or harm; protection; measures necessary to protect a person or place ("Security was increased in the city.")

see - v. to know or sense through the eyes; to understand or know

seed - n. the part of a plant from which new plants grow

seek(ing) - v. to search for ("They are seeking a cure for cancer."); to try to get ("She is seeking election to public office."); to plan to do ("Electric power companies are seeking to reduce their use of coal.")

seem - v. to appear to be ("She seems to be in good health.")

seize - v. to take quickly by force; to take control of quickly; to arrest

self - n. all that which makes one person different from others

sell - v. to give something in exchange for money

Senate - n. the smaller of the two groups in the governments of some countries, such as in the United States Congress

send - v. to cause to go; to permit to go; to cause to be carried, taken or directed to or away from a place

sense - v. to come to know about by feeling, believing or understanding; n. any of the abilities to see, hear, taste, smell or feel

sentence - v. to declare the punishment for a crime; n. the punishment for a crime

separate - v. to set or keep people, things or ideas away from or independent from others; ad. not together or connected; different

series - n. a number of similar things or events that follow one after another in time, position or order

serious - ad. important; needing careful consideration; dangerous

serve - v. to work as an official; to be employed by the government; to assist or help

service - n. an organization or system that provides something for the public ("Schools and roads are services paid for by taxes."); a job that an organization or business can do for money; military organizations such as an army, navy or air force; a religious ceremony

set - v. to put in place or position; to establish a time, price or limit

settle - v. to end (a dispute); to agree about (a problem); to make a home in a new place

several - ad. three or more, but not many

severe - ad. not gentle; causing much pain, sadness or damage

sex - n. either the male or female group into which all people and animals are divided because of their actions in producing young; the physical activity by which humans and animals can produce young

shake - v. to move or cause to move in short, quick movements

shape - v. to give form to; n. the form of something, especially how it looks

share - v. to give part of something to another or others; n. a part belonging to, given to or owned by a single person or a group; any one of the equal parts of ownership of a business or company

sharp - ad. having a thin edge or small point that can cut or hurt; causing hurt or pain

she - pro. the girl or woman who is being spoken about

sheep - n. a farm animal used for its meat and hair

shell - v. to fire artillery; n. a metal container that is fired from a large gun and explodes when it reaches its target; a hard outside cover

shelter - v. to protect or give protection to; n. something that gives protection; a place of safety

shine - v. to aim a light; to give bright light; to be bright; to clean to make bright

ship - v. to transport; n. a large boat

shock - v. to cause to feel sudden surprise or fear; n. something that greatly affects the mind or emotions; a powerful shake, as from an earthquake

shoe - n. a covering for the foot

shoot - v. to cause a gun or other weapon to send out an object designed to kill; to use a gun

short - ad. lasting only for a small period of time; not long; opposite tall

should - v. used with another verb (action word) to show responsibility ("We should study."), probability ("The talks should begin soon."), or that something is believed to be a good idea ("Criminals should be punished.")

shout - v. to speak very loudly

show - v. to make something be seen; to make known; n. a play or story presented in a theater, or broadcast on radio or television, for enjoyment or education; something organized to be seen by the public

shrink - v. to make or become less in size, weight or value

sick - ad. suffering physically or mentally with a disease or other problem; not in good health

sickness - n. the condition of being in bad health

side - n. the outer surfaces of an object that are not the top or bottom; parts away from the middle; either the right or left half of the body

sign - v. to write one's name; n. a mark or shape used to mean something; evidence that something exists or will happen; a flat piece of material with writing that gives information

signal - v. to send a message by signs; n. an action or movement that sends a message

silence - v. to make quiet; to stop from speaking or making noise; n. a lack of noise or sound

silver - n. a valued white metal

similar - ad. like something else but not exactly the same

simple - ad. easy to understand or do; not difficult or complex

since - prep. from a time in the past until now ("I have known her since we went to school together.")

sing - v. to make music sounds with the voice

single - ad. one only

sink - v. to go down into water or other liquid

sister - n. a female with the same father or mother as another person

sit - v. to rest on the lower part of the body without the support of the legs; to become seated

situation - n. the way things are during a period of time

size - n. the space occupied by something; how long, wide or high something is

skeleton - n. all the bones of a human or other animal together in their normal positions

skill - n. the ability gained from training or experience

skin - n. the outer covering of humans and most animals

sky - n. the space above the earth

slave - n. a person owned or controlled by another

sleep - v. to rest the body and mind with the eyes closed

slide - v. to move smoothly over a surface

slow - v. to reduce the speed of; ad. not fast in moving, talking or other activities

small - ad. little in size or amount; few in number; not important; opposite large

smash - v. to break or be broken into small pieces by force; to hit or move with >force

smell - v. to sense through the nose; n. something sensed by the nose ("the smell of food cooking")

smoke - v. to use cigarettes or other tobacco products by burning them and breathing in the smoke; n. that which can be seen rising into the air like a cloud from something burning

smooth - ad. having a level surface; opposite rough

snow - n. soft, white pieces of frozen water that fall from the sky, usually in winter or when the air temperature is very cold

so - ad. in such a way that ("He held the flag so all could see it."); also; too ("She left early, and so did we."); very ("I am so sick."); as a result ("They were sick, so they could not come."); conj. in order that; for the purpose of ("Come early so we can discuss the plans.")

social - ad. of or about people or a group

soft - ad. not hard; easily shaped; pleasing to touch; not loud

soil - n. earth in which plants grow

soldier - n. a person in the army

solid - ad. having a hard shape with no empty spaces inside; strong; not in the form of a liquid or gas

solve - v. to find an answer; to settle

some - ad. of an amount or number or part not
stated; not all

son - n. a person's male child

soon - ad. not long after the present time; quickly

sort - n. any group of people or things that are the same or are similar in some way; a kind of something

sound - n. fast-moving waves of energy that affect the ear and result in hearing; that which is heard

south - n. the direction to the right of a person facing the rising sun

space - n. the area outside the earth's atmosphere where the sun, moon, planets and stars are; the area between or inside things

speak - v. to talk; to say words with the mouth; to express one's thoughts to others and exchange ideas; to give a speech to a group

special - ad. of a different or unusual kind; not for general use; better or more important than others of the same kind

speech - n. a talk given to a group of people

speed - v. to make something go or move faster; n. the rate at which something moves or travels; the rate at which something happens or is done

spend - v. to give as payment; to use ("He spends much time studying.")

spill - v. to cause or permit liquid to flow out, usually by accident

spirit - n. the part of a human that is not physical and is connected to thoughts and emotions; the part of a person that is believed to remain alive after death

split - v. to separate into two or more parts; to divide or break into parts

sport - n. any game or activity of competition involving physical effort or skill

spread - v. to become longer or wider; to make or become widely known

spring - n. the time of the year between winter and summer

spy - v. to steal or get information secretly; n. one who watches others secretly; a person employed by a government to get secret information about another country

square - n. a flat shape having four equal sides

stab - v. to cut or push into or through with a pointed weapon

stand - v. to move into or be in a position in which only the feet are on a surface; to be in one position or place

star - n. a mass of gas that usually appears as a small light in the sky at night, but is not a planet; a famous person, usually an actor or singer

start - v. to begin; to make something begin

starve - v. to suffer or die from a lack of food

state - v. to say; to declare; n. a political part of a nation

station - n. a place of special work or purpose ("a police station"); a place where passengers get on or off trains or buses; a place for radio or television broadcasts

statue - n. a form of a human, animal or other creature usually made of stone, wood or metal

stay - v. to continue to be where one is; to remain; to not leave; to live for a time ("They stayed in New York for two years.")

steal - v. to take without permission or paying

steam - n. the gas that comes from hot water

steel - n. iron made harder and stronger by mixing it with other substances

step - v. to move by lifting one foot and placing it in a new position; n. the act of stepping; one of a series of actions designed to reach a goal

stick - v. to attach something to another thing using a substance that will hold them together; to become fixed in one position so that movement is difficult ("Something is making the door stick."); n. a thin piece of wood

still - ad. not moving ("The man was standing still."); until the present or a stated time ("Was he still there?"); even so; although ("The job was difficult, but she still wanted to do it.")

stone - n. a small piece of rock

stop - v. to prevent any more movement or action; to come or bring to an end

store - v. to keep or put away for future use; n. a place where people buy things

storm - n. violent weather, including strong winds and rain or snow

story - n. the telling or writing of an event, either real or imagined

stove - n. a heating device used for cooking

straight - ad. continuing in one direction without turns

strange - ad. unusual; not normal; not known

street - n. a road in a city, town or village

stretch - v. to extend for a distance; to pull on to make longer or wider

strike - v. to hit with force; to stop work as a way to seek better conditions, more pay or to make other demands

strong - ad. having much power; not easily broken, damaged or destroyed

structure - n. the way something is built, made or organized; a system that is formed or organized in a special way; a building

struggle - v. to try with much effort; to fight with; n. a great effort; a fight

study - v. to make an effort to gain knowledge by using the mind; to examine carefully

stupid - ad. not able to learn much; not intelligent

subject - n. the person or thing being discussed, studied or written about

submarine - n. an underwater ship

substance - n. the material of which something is made (a solid, liquid or gas)

substitute - v. to put or use in place of another; n. a person or thing put or used in place of another

subversion - n. an attempt to weaken or destroy a political system or government, usually secretly

succeed - v. to reach a goal or thing desired; to produce a planned result

such - ad. of this or that kind; of the same kind as; similar to

sudden - ad. not expected; without warning; done or carried out quickly or without preparation

suffer - v. to feel pain in the body or mind; to receive or experience hurt or sadness

sugar - n. a sweet substance made from liquids taken from plants

suggest - v. to offer or propose something to think about or consider

summer - n. the warmest time of the year, between spring and autumn

sun - n. the huge star in the sky that provides heat and light to earth

supervise - v. to direct and observe the work of others

supply - v. to give; to provide; n. the amount of something that can be given or sold to others

support - v. to carry the weight of; to hold up or in position; to agree with others and help them reach a goal; to approve

suppose - v. to believe, think or imagine ("I suppose you are right."); to expect ("It is supposed to rain tonight.")

suppress - v. to put down or to keep down by force; to prevent information from being known publicly

sure - ad. very probable; with good reason to believe; true without question

surface - n. the outer side or top of something ("The rocket landed on the surface of the moon.")

surplus - n. an amount that is more than is needed; extra; ("That country has a trade surplus. It exports more than it imports.")

surprise - v. to cause a feeling of wonder because something is not expected; n. something not expected; the feeling caused by something not expected

surrender - v. to give control of oneself or one's property to another or others; to stop fighting and admit defeat

surround - v. to form a circle around; to be in positions all around someone or something

survive - v. to remain alive during or after a dangerous situation

suspect - v. to imagine or believe that a person is guilty of something bad or illegal; n. a person believed to be guilty

suspend - v. to cause to stop for a period of time

swallow - v. to take into the stomach through the mouth

swear in - v. to put an official into office by having him or her promise to carry out the duties of that office ("The chief justice will swear in the president.")

sweet - ad. tasting pleasant, like sugar

swim - v. to move through water by making motions with the arms and legs

sympathy - n. a sharing of feelings or emotions with another person, usually feelings of sadness

system - n. a method of organizing or doing something by following rules or a plan; a group of connected things or parts working together for a common purpose or goal



take - v. to put a hand or hands around something and hold it, often to move it to another place; to carry something ; to seize; to capture; to begin to be in control ("The president takes office tomorrow.")

talk - v. to express thoughts in spoken words; n. a meeting for discussion

tall - ad. higher than others; opposite short

tank - n. a large container for holding liquids; a heavy military vehicle with guns

target - n. any person or object aimed at or fired at

taste - v. to sense through the mouth ("The fruit tastes sweet.")

tax - n. the money a person or business must pay to the government so the government can provide services

tea - n. a drink made from the plant of the same name

teach - v. to show how to do something; to provide knowledge; to cause to understand

team - n. a group organized for some purpose, often for sports

tear - v. to pull apart, often by force

tears - n. the fluid that comes out of the eyes while crying

technical - ad. involving machines, processes and materials in industry, transportation and communications; of or about a very special kind of subject or thing ("You need technical knowledge to understand how this system works.")

technology - n. the use of scientific knowledge and methods to produce goods and services

telephone - n. a device or system for sending sounds, especially the voice, over distances

telescope - n. a device for making objects that are far away appear closer and larger

television - n. a device that receives electronic signals and makes them into pictures and sounds; the system of sending pictures and sounds by electronic signals over a distance so others can see and hear them on a receiver

tell - v. to give information; to make known by speaking; to order; to command

temperature - n. the measurement of heat and cold

temporary - ad. lasting only a short time

tense - ad. having fear or concern; dangerous; opposite calm

term - n. a limited period of time during which someone does a job or carries out a responsibility ("He served two terms in Congress."); the conditions of an agreement that have been accepted by those involved in it

terrible - ad. very bad; causing terror or fear

territory - n. a large area of land

terror - n. extreme fear; that which causes great fear

terrorist - n. a person who carries out acts of extreme violence as a protest or a way to influence a government

test - v. to attempt to learn or prove what something is like or how it will act by studying or doing ("The scientists will test the new engine soon."); n. an attempt to learn or prove what something is like or how it will act by studying or doing ("The test of the new engine takes place today."); a group of questions or problems used to find out a person's knowledge ("The students did well on the language test.")

than - conj. connecting word used to link things that may be similar, but are not equal ("My sister is taller than I am.")

thank - v. to say that one has a good feeling toward another because that person did something kind ("I want to thank you for helping me.")

that - ad. showing the person, place or thing being spoken about ("That man is a soldier."); pro. the person, place or thing being spoken about ("The building that I saw was very large.")

the - pro. used in front of a name word to show that it is a person or thing that is known about or is being spoken about

theater - n. a place where movies are shown or plays are performed

them - pro. other people being spoken about

then - ad. at that time; existing; and so

theory - n. a possible explanation of why something exists or how something happens using experiments or ideas, but which is not yet proven ("Other scientists are debating his theory about the disappearance of dinosaurs.")

there - ad. in that place or position; to or toward that place

these - pro. of or about the people, places or things nearby that have been spoken about already

they - pro. those ones being spoken about

thick - ad. having a large distance between two opposite surfaces ("The wall is two meters thick."); having many parts close together ("The forest is very thick."); almost solid, such as a liquid that does not flow easily; opposite thin

thin - ad. having a small distance between two opposite surfaces; not fat; not wide; opposite thick

thing - n. any object

think - v. to produce thoughts; to form ideas in the mind; to consider; to believe

third - ad. coming after two others

this - pro. of or about the person, place or thing nearby that has been spoken about already

threaten - v. to warn that one will do harm or cause damage

through - prep. in at one end and out at the other; from front to back; from top to bottom; with the help of; by

throw - v. to cause to go through the air by a movement of the arm

tie - v. to join or hold together with some material; n. anything that joins or unites; links or connections ("The two nations have strong trade ties.")

time - n. that which is measured in minutes, hours, days and years; a period that can be identified in hours and minutes and is shown on a clock; a period when an event should or will take place

tired - ad. having less strength because of work or exercise; needing sleep or rest

to - prep. showing the direction of an action; showing the person or place toward which an action is directed; showing a goal or purpose

today - n. this day

together - ad. in one group; at the same time or place; in cooperation

tomorrow - n. the day after today

tonight - n. this night

too - ad. also; as well as; more than is necessary

tool - n. any instrument or device designed to help one do work

top - n. the upper edge or surface; the highest part; the cover of something

torture - v. to cause severe pain; n. the act of causing severe pain in order to harm, to punish or to get information from

total - n. the complete amount

touch - v. to put the hand or fingers on

toward - prep. in the direction of; leading to

town - n. a center where people live, larger than a village but not as large as a city

trade - v. to buy and sell or exchange products or services; n. the activity of buying, selling or exchanging products or services

tradition - n. a ceremony, activity or belief that has existed for a long time

traffic - n. the movement of people, vehicles or ships along a street, road or waterway

tragic - ad. extremely sad; terrible

train - v. to teach or learn how to do something; to prepare for an activity; n. an engine and the cars connected to it that move along a railroad

transport - v. to move goods or people from one place to another

transportation - n. the act or business of moving goods or people

trap - v. to catch or be caught by being tricked; to be unable to move or escape; n. a device used to catch animals

travel - v. to go from one place to another, usually for a long distance

treason - n. the act of fighting against one's own country or of helping its enemies

treasure - n. a large collection of money, jewels or other things of great value

treat - v. to deal with; to act toward in a special way; to try to cure

treatment - n. the act of treating; the use of medicine to try to cure or make better

treaty - n. a written agreement between two or more nations

tree - n. a very tall plant that is mostly wood, except for its leaves

trial - n. an examination in a court of a question or dispute to decide if a charge is true

tribe - n. a group of families ruled by a common chief or leader

trick - v. to cheat; to fool a person so as to get something or make him or her do something

trip - n. a movement from one place to another, usually a long distance

troops - n. a number of soldiers in a large controlled group

trouble - n. that which causes concern, fear, difficulty or problems

truce - n. a temporary halt in fighting agreed to by all sides involved

truck - n. a heavy vehicle used to carry goods

true - ad. correct; not false

trust - v. to believe that someone is honest and will not cause harm

try - v. to make an effort; to take court action against a person to decide if he or she is guilty or innocent of a crime

tube - n. a long, round structure through which liquids or gases can flow; a long, thin container in which they can be kept

turn - v. to change direction; to move into a different position; to change color, form or shape



under - prep. below; below the surface of; less than; as called for by a law, agreement or system ("The river flows under the bridge." "Such action is not permitted under the law.")

understand - v. to know what is meant; to have knowledge of

unite - v. to join together

universe - n. all of space, including planets and stars

university - n. a place of education that usually includes several colleges and research organizations

unless - conj. except if it happens; on condition that ("I will not go, unless the rain stops.")

until - conj. up to a time; before

up - ad. to, in or at a higher position or value

urge - v. to advise strongly; to make a great effort to get someone to do something

urgent - ad. needing an immediate decision or action

us - pro. the form of the word "we" used after a preposition ("He said he would write to us.") or used as an object of a verb ("They saw us yesterday.")

use - v. to employ for a purpose; to put into action

usual - ad. as is normal or common; as is most often done, seen or heard



valley - n. a long area of land between higher areas of land

value - n. the quality of being useful, important or desired; the amount of money that could be received if something is sold

vegetable - n. a plant grown for food

vehicle - n. anything on or in which a person or thing can travel or be transported, especially anything on wheels; a car or truck

version - n. the form of something with different details than earlier or later forms

very - ad. extremely ("He was very late.")

veto - v. to reject or refuse to approve

vicious - ad. bad; dangerous; showing harm or hate

victim - n. someone or something that is injured, killed or made to suffer; someone who is tricked

victory - n. a success in a fight or competition

village - n. a very small town

violate - v. to fail to obey or honor; to break (an agreement)

violence - n. the use of force to cause injury, death or damage

visit - v. to go to or come to a place for a short time for friendly or business reasons

voice - n. the sound made by creatures, especially humans, for speaking

volcano - n. a hill or mountain around a hole in the earth's surface that can explode, sending hot, melted rock and ash into the air

vote - v. to choose a candidate in an election; n. a choice or decision expressed by the voice, by hand or by writing



wages - n. money received for work done

wait - v. to delay acting; to postpone

walk - v. to move by putting one foot in front of the other

wall - n. the side of a room or building formed by wood, stone or other material; a structure sometimes used to separate areas of land

want - v. to desire; to wish for; to need

war - n. fighting between nations, or groups in a nation, using weapons

warm - ad. almost hot; having or feeling some heat

warn - v. to tell of possible danger; to advise or inform about something bad that may happen

wash - v. to make clean, usually with water

waste - v. to spend or use without need or care; to make bad use of; n. a spending of money, time or effort with no value gained or returned; something thrown away as having no value; the liquid and solid substances that result from body processes and are passed out of the body

watch - v. to look at; to observe closely; to look and wait for

water - n. the liquid that falls from the sky as rain or is found in lakes, rivers and oceans

wave - v. to move or cause to move one way and the other, as a flag in the wind; to signal by moving the hand one way and the other; n. a large mass of water that forms and moves on the surface of a lake or ocean

way - n. a path on land or sea or in the air; how something is done; method

we - pro. two or more people, including the speaker or writer ("He and I will go together, and we will return together.")

weak - ad. having little power; easily broken, damaged or destroyed; opposite strong

wealth - n. a large amount of possessions, money or other things of value

weapon - n. anything used to cause injury or to kill during an attack, fight or war

wear - v. to have on the body, as clothes

weather - n. the condition of the atmosphere resulting from sun, wind, rain, heat or cold

week - n. a period of time equal to seven days

weigh - v. to measure how heavy someone or something is

welcome - v. to express happiness or pleasure when someone arrives or something develops

well - ad. in a way that is good or pleasing; in good health; n. a hole in the ground where water, gas or oil can be found

west - n. the direction in which the sun goes down

wet - ad. covered with water or other liquid; not dry

what - pro. used to ask about something or to ask for information about something ("What is this?"); ad. which or which kind ("He wants to know what you would like to drink.")

wheat - n. a grain used to make bread; the plant that produces the grain

wheel - n. a round structure that turns around a center

when - ad. at what time; at any time ("When will she come home?"); conj. during or at the time ("I studied hard when I was in school.")

where - ad., conj. at, to or in what place ("Where is his house?" "The house where he lives is in the old part of the city.")

which - pro. used to ask about what one or what ones of a group of things or people ("Which program do you like best?" "Which students will take the test?")

while - n. a space of time ("Please come to my house for a while."); conj. at or during the same time ("It may not be a good idea to eat while you are running.")

white - ad. having the color like that of milk or snow

who - pro. what or which person or persons that ("Who wants to go?"); the person or persons ("They are the ones who want to go.")

whole - ad. the complete amount; all together; not divided; not cut into pieces

why - ad. for what cause or reason ("Why did she do it?"); conj. the reason for which ("I do not know why she did it.")

wide - ad. having a great distance from one side to the other; not limited

wife - n. a woman who is married

wild - ad. living and growing in natural conditions and not organized or supervised by humans; angry; uncontrolled

will - v. a word used with action words to show future action ("They will hold talks tomorrow.")

willing - ad. being ready or having a desire to ("They are willing to talk about the problem.")

win - v. to gain a victory; to defeat another or others in a competition, election or battle

wind - n. a strong movement of air

window - n. an opening in a wall to let in light and air, usually filled with glass

winter - n. the coldest time of year, between autumn and spring

wire - n. a long, thin piece of metal used to hang objects or to carry electricity or electronic communications from one place to another

wise - ad. having much knowledge and understanding; able to use knowledge and understanding to make good or correct decisions

wish - v. to want; to express a desire for

with - prep. along or by the side of; together; using ("He fixed it with a tool."); having ("the house with the red door")

withdraw - v. to take or move out, away or back; to remove

without - prep. with no; not having or using; free from; not doing

woman - n. an adult female human

wonder - v. to ask oneself; to question ("She wonders if it is true."); n. a feeling of surprise

wonderful - ad. causing wonder; especially good

wood - n. the solid material of which trees are made

word - n. one or more connected sounds that form a single part of a language

work - v. to use physical or mental effort to make or do something; n. the effort used to make or to do something; that which needs effort; the job one does to earn money

world - n. the earth; the people who live on the earth

worry - v. to be concerned; to continue thinking that something, possibly bad, can happen

worse - ad. more bad than

worth - n. value measured in money

wound - v. to injure; to hurt; to cause physical damage to a person or animal; n. an injury to the body of a human or animal in which the skin is usually cut or broken

wreck - v. to damage greatly; to destroy; n. anything that has been badly damaged or broken

wreckage - n. what remains of something severely damaged or destroyed

write - v. to use an instrument to make words appear on a surface, such as paper

wrong - ad. not correct; bad; not legal; opposite right



year - n. a period of time equal to twelve months

yellow - ad. having the color like that of gold or the sun

yes - ad. used to express agreement or to permit

yesterday - n. the day before today

yet - ad. at some time before now ("Have they arrived yet?"); now; at this time ("I cannot tell you about it yet."); conj. however ("The sun was shining, yet it was cold.")

you - pro. the person or persons being spoken to

young - ad. in the early years of life; not old



zero - n. the number meaning none or nothing

zoo - n. a place where animals are kept for the public to look at and study



dis - not (dishonest, disobey)

pro - for, supporting (pro-labor, pro-government)

re - to do again (reorganize, reunite)

self - used to show that the person or group acting is the one affected by the action, or to show that the action is done only by its own effort or power (self-declared, self-appointed)

un - not (unusual, unhappy)



carry out - to do; to put into effect ("Please carry out the plan.")

pass a bill - approve ("Congress is expected to pass a bill to cut taxes.")

take steps - to start to do something ("The government will take steps to halt inflation.")



atom - a very small part of all things; the smallest part of an element that can join with parts of other elements

bacteria - living things that are one cell and can be seen only through a microscope; some cause disease

cell - a small mass of living material that is part of all plants and animals

chromosome - a line of genes; most human cells contain 46 chromosomes

compound - a substance containing two or more elements

dense - close together; thick

electron - a small part of an atom that has an electrical force

element - one of more than 100 substances known to science that cannot be separated into other substances

enzyme - a special kind of protein; it produces changes in other substances without being changed itself

fetus - unborn young

fission - a splitting; in atomic fission, the nucleus of an atom is split to produce nuclear energy

fusion - a joining together; in atomic fusion, atomic particles are joined together to produce nuclear energy

genes - parts of cells that control the growth and development of living things; genes from the mother and father are passed to the child; genes contain nucleic acid

genetic engineering - the science of changing the genes of a living organism

gravity - the force that pulls things toward the center of the earth

image - a reproduction of the appearance of a person or thing

laser - an instrument that makes a thin, powerful light

magnet - a piece of iron or other material that has a pulling force; this pulling force is called magnetism

molecule - the smallest amount of a chemical substance that can exist

nerve - a thin piece of tissue that sends information through the body to and from the brain

nucleus - the center part of an atom or cell

nucleic acid - a molecule that holds the genetic information necessary for life; there are two kinds of nucleic acid: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid)

nutrient - a food or substance that makes plants, humans or animals grow

organ - a part of the body that has a special purpose, such as the heart or brain

organism - a living thing, often so small it can be seen only through a microscope

particle - a very small piece of matter

proteins - substances responsible for the growth of tissue and for fixing damaged tissue

robot - a machine that moves and performs tasks

tissue - living material; a group of cells that are similar in appearance and do the same thing

virus - a kind of organism that causes disease

x-rays - a kind of radiation that can pass through most solid materials, often used in medicine



heart - pumps blood through the body

intestines - tubes through which food passes after it is broken down in the stomach; part of the intestines also remove solid wastes from the body

kidney - cleans liquid wastes from the body

liver - makes some proteins and enzymes; removes poisons from the blood

lung - takes in and expels air from the body

prostate - a part of the male reproductive system

stomach - breaks down food for the body to use

uterus - a part of the female reproductive system where a fetus develops / VOA Special English


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